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Are attentional instruction and feedback type affect on learning of postural and supra-postural tasks?

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Abstract

Optimum postural control and balance is dependent on the individual, the environment, and the task limitations. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of attentional instruction and feedback type on postural and supra-postural tasks. The 96 participants aged 11–19 years with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were randomly assigned to one of the eight groups such as attentional instruction (internal and external), feedback (external and internal), and task (postural and supra-postural). Following a pre-test, the participants underwent four training sessions. Each session included 20 trials of 30 s with 20 s of rest between trials. Twenty-four hours after the training session, they performed two trials of warm-up and then took part in a retention test. Twenty-four hours after the retention test, they again performed two trials of warm-up and then participated in the transfer test. The result showed that the external attentional feedback and external attentional instruction groups performed better on supra-postural and postural tasks than the other experimental groups (P > 0.05). The external attentional instruction group performed better on postural and supra-postural tasks in the delayed retention and transfer tests (P > 0.05). Also, the external feedback group scored highest on postural and supra-postural tasks in the delayed retention and transfer tests. The results suggest that external attentional feedback and instruction is more effective than internal attention when learning supra-postural tasks to maintain balance.

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Correspondence to Amir Shams.

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Shams, A., Dehkordi, P.S., Tahmasbi, F. et al. Are attentional instruction and feedback type affect on learning of postural and supra-postural tasks?. Neurol Sci (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04278-9

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Keywords

  • Supra-postural task
  • Postural task
  • Balance control
  • Attentional feedback
  • Attentional instruction
  • ADHD