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Normative values of the Rao’s Brief Repeatable Battery in an Italian young adolescent population: the influence of age, gender, and education

  • Fabrizia Falco
  • Marcello MocciaEmail author
  • Alessandro Chiodi
  • Antonio Carotenuto
  • Angelo D’Amelio
  • Laura Rosa
  • Kyrie Piscopo
  • Andrea Falco
  • Teresa Costabile
  • Francesca Lauro
  • Vincenzo Brescia Morra
  • Roberta Lanzillo
Original Article
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

Aim

The Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB) is frequently used to estimate cognitive function in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), while it has been included in few studies on young MS, also because of the absence of normative values. We aim to evaluate the impact of age, gender, and education on BRB scores in a young adolescent population.

Methods

We administered the BRB to 76, 14-to-17-year-old, healthy subjects. Linear regression models were used to assess the impact of age, gender, and education on sub-test scores. When statistically significant (p < 0.05), we used the regression coefficient to correct the raw scores.

Results

Younger age was associated with better performance on SPART (β = − 2.54; p < 0.05) and SPART-D (β = − 1.06; p < 0.05). Male gender was associated with better performance on SPART (β = 3.40; p < 0.05), SPART-D (β = 1.41; p < 0.05), PASAT-3 (β = 5.58; p < 0.05), and PASAT-2 (β = 5.07; p < 0.05). Educational attainments were associated with better performance on SPART (β = 3.23; p < 0.05) and SPART-D (β = 1.28; p < 0.05). Cut-off points were suggested at the 5th lowest percentile.

Interpretation

Age, gender, and education must be accounted for when applying the BRB to young population. Present results can prove useful for future clinical and research applications in adolescent MS patients.

Keywords

Multiple sclerosis Cognitive Cognition Rao Pediatric 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are thankful to teachers and school directors that allowed this study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabrizia Falco
    • 1
  • Marcello Moccia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alessandro Chiodi
    • 2
  • Antonio Carotenuto
    • 1
  • Angelo D’Amelio
    • 2
  • Laura Rosa
    • 3
  • Kyrie Piscopo
    • 3
  • Andrea Falco
    • 1
  • Teresa Costabile
    • 1
  • Francesca Lauro
    • 1
  • Vincenzo Brescia Morra
    • 1
  • Roberta Lanzillo
    • 1
  1. 1.Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Care and Research Centre, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Science and OdontostomatologyFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly
  2. 2.Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Science and OdontostomatologyFederico II UniversityNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Active Inclusion and Student Participation ServiceFederico II University of NaplesNaplesItaly

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