Combined superior rectus hypoplasia and superior oblique palsy without a trochlear nerve
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Congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs) represent a group of neurodevelopmental diseases of the brainstem and cranial nerves . Congenital superior oblique palsy (SOP) is one of the most representative CCDD because 73% of patients show an absent trochlear nerve and superior oblique hypoplasia . CCDD is not limited to a single nerve and sometimes affects two or more nerves [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Coexistence of SOP with other CCDDs such as Duane’s retraction syndrome has been reported . However, combined superior rectus hypoplasia and superior oblique palsy without a trochlear nerve has never been reported.
A 35-year-old man presented with persistent diplopia for the past 5 years and an abnormal head posture consisting of a face turn to the right, head tilt to the left, and chin up position. He had noticeable asymmetry of the face. He had previously undergone strabismus surgery twice of a right superior rectus resection followed by left superior rectus...
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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.