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The role of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the pathogenesis of cluster headache: a review

  • G. D’AndreaEmail author
  • A. Gucciardi
  • F. Perini
  • A. Leon
Review Article
  • 61 Downloads

Abstract

The pathogenesis underlying cluster headache remains an unresolved issue. Although both the autonomic system and the hypothalamus play a central role, the modality of their involvement remains largely unknown. It is, also, unknown why the duration of the pain attacks is so brief and why their onset and termination are abrupt and extremely painful. This review summarizes the evidence to date accumulated in favor of a possible role of anomalies in the metabolism of tyrosine, tryptophan, and arginine in these unresolved issues.

Keywords

Cluster headache Tyramine Tryptamine TAARs NO 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standards

This article does not contain any study with human subjects performed by any of the authors.

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Copyright information

© Fondazione Società Italiana di Neurologia 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. D’Andrea
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Gucciardi
    • 2
  • F. Perini
    • 3
  • A. Leon
    • 1
  1. 1.Research and Innovation (R&I) s.r.l.PaduaItaly
  2. 2.Mass Spectrometry and Metabolomics LaboratoryInstitute of Pediatric Research IRP Città della SperanzaPaduaItaly
  3. 3.Neurology Department, Headache CenterVicenza HospitalVicenzaItaly

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