Neurological Sciences

, Volume 39, Issue 12, pp 2079–2084 | Cite as

Performance of the COMPASS-31 questionnaire with regard to autonomic nervous system testing results and medication use: a prospective study in a real-life setting

  • Berislav Ruška
  • Tin Pavičić
  • Ivan Pavlović
  • Anamari Junaković
  • Ivan Adamec
  • Luka Crnošija
  • Magdalena Krbot Skorić
  • Mario HabekEmail author
Original Article


The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the Composite Autonomic System Score-31 (COMPASS-31) questionnaire in a real-life setting in consecutive patients referred to the laboratory for objective testing of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with the hypothesis that COMPASS-31 results differ depending on medications and findings of the tilt table test results. One hundred seventy-one consecutive patients (125 females, mean age 41.5 ± 19.3) referred for testing of the ANS were enrolled. Before testing, all patients completed the recently validated Croatian version of COMPASS-31. The following data were systematically collected for all patients: age, sex, diagnoses, and medications. Results of COMPASS-31 were significantly higher in patients taking medications with a known influence on the ANS (p < 0.001). Patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia had significantly higher orthostatic intolerance and vasomotor domains of COMPASS-31 (p = 0.048 and p = 0.022, respectively). Patients with a cardiovagal score ≥ 1 had a significantly higher vasomotor domain of COMPASS-31 compared to patients with normal results of ANS tests (p = 0.030). These findings suggest the COMPASS-31 might be a valuable screening tool for autonomic dysfunctions, as it is associated with impaired ANS tests, but usage of medications that modify the ANS should always be taken into account.


Autonomic nervous system COMPASS-31 Medications 


Authors’ contributions

Study concept and design: Junaković, Habek. Acquisition of data: Pavičić, Ruška, Pavlović, Junaković, Adamec, Crnošija, Krbot Skorić, Habek. Analysis and interpretation of data: Pavičić, Ruška, Pavlović, Junaković, Adamec, Crnošija, Krbot Skorić, Habek. Drafting of the manuscript: Pavičić, Ruška, Pavlović. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Pavičić, Ruška, Pavlović, Junaković, Adamec, Crnošija, Krbot Skorić, Habek. Administrative, technical, and material support: Pavičić, Ruška, Pavlović, Junaković, Adamec, Crnošija, Krbot Skorić, Habek.

Compliance with ethical standards

All patients signed an informed consent and the study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Center Zagreb.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of MedicineUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Referral Center for Autonomic Nervous System Disorders, Department of NeurologyUniversity Hospital Center ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  3. 3.Faculty of Electrical Engineering and ComputingUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia

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