Advertisement

Neurological Sciences

, Volume 39, Issue 12, pp 2053–2060 | Cite as

Neuropsychological development in school-aged children after surgery or transcatheter closure for ventricular septal defect

  • Youpeng Jin
  • Jinlong Liu
  • Wei Wang
  • Yujuan Wang
  • Yi Yin
  • Xiaowei Xin
  • Bo Han
Original Article
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

We aimed to assess neuropsychological development in school-aged children with ventricular septal defect (VSD) after surgery or transcatheter closure.

Methods

We included 31 children with VSD who underwent surgery and 35 who underwent transcatheter closure and their age- and sex-matched best friends as normal controls and parents. The Halstead-Reitan Battery was used to measure psychological and behavioral functions of children.

Results

The mean finger-tapping time (left hand) was significantly lower for children with than without VSD (P < 0.05). For non-handedness tactual performance, the mean time was significantly longer for surgery than interventional therapy groups and controls (P < 0.05). The number of remembered locations was significantly lower for surgery than interventional therapy groups and controls (P < 0.05). The correct number of music rhythms was significantly lower for the surgery than control group (P < 0.05). Children with and without VSD did not differ in the correct number of first-group music rhythms. Nevertheless, for second- and third-group music rhythms, the correct number was significantly lower for the surgery than interventional therapy groups and controls (P < 0.05). The correct number of third-group music rhythms was significantly lower for only the interventional therapy than control group.

Conclusion

School-aged children with VSD had normal IQ levels after surgery or interventional therapy but decreased fine-motor and auditory discrimination abilities as well as visual spatial disorder. Children with and without VSD did not differ in general tasks, but abilities on more complex and difficult tasks were lower for children with VSD. Impairments were greater after surgery than interventional therapy.

Keywords

Ventricular septal defect Pediatrics Neuropsychological development 

Abbreviations

VSD

Ventricular septal defect

CHD

Congenital heart disease

IQ

Intelligence quotient

HRB

Halstead-Reitan Battery

TPT

Tactual performance test

Notes

Funding information

This study was supported by the Health Ministry of Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China (2009QZ018).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Larrabee GJ, Millis SR, Meyers JE (2008) Sensitivity to brain dysfunction of the Halstead-Reitan vs an ability-focused neuropsychological battery. Clin Neuropsychol 22(5):813–825CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boake C (2002) From the Binet-Simon to the Wechsler-Bellevue: tracing the history of intelligence testing. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 24(3):383–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lin CCH, Chen WJ, Yang HJ, Hsiao CK, Tien AY (2000) Performance on the Wisconsin card sorting test among adolescents in Taiwan: norms, factorial structure, and relation to schizotypy. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 22(1):69–79CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tien AY et al (1996) Computerized Wisconsin card sorting test: comparison with manual administration. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 12(8):479–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    MacPherson S, Della Sala S (2000) Welcoming normative data for Wisconsin card sorting test. Neurol Sci 21(5):258–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hovels-Gurich HH et al (2002) Long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in school-aged children after neonatal arterial switch operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 124(3):448–458CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Alipour A, Arefnasab Z, Babamahmoodi A (2011) Emotional intelligence and prefrontal cortex: a comparative study based on Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST). Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci 5(2):114–119PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Laiacona M, Inzaghi MG, de Tanti A, Capitani E (2000) Wisconsin card sorting test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl sorting test. Neurol Sci 21(5):279–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alvarez JA, Emory E (2006) Executive function and the frontal lobes: a meta-analytic review. Neuropsychol Rev 16(1):17–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rzezak P, Fuentes D, Guimarães CA, Thome-Souza S, Kuczynski E, Guerreiro M, Valente KDR (2009) Executive dysfunction in children and adolescents with temporal lobe epilepsy: is the Wisconsin card sorting test enough? Epilepsy Behav 15(3):376–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mattioli F, Stampatori C, Capra R (2011) The effect of natalizumab on cognitive function in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: preliminary results of a 1-year follow-up study. Neurol Sci 32(1):83–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Neri ML, Guimarães CA, Oliveira EP, Duran MH, Medeiros LL, Montenegro MA, Boscariol M, Guerreiro MM (2012) Neuropsychological assessment of children with rolandic epilepsy: executive functions. Epilepsy Behav 24(4):403–407CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bellinger DC, Wypij D, duPlessis AJ, Rappaport LA, Jonas RA, Wernovsky G, Newburger JW (2003) Neurodevelopmental status at eight years in children with dextro-transposition of the great arteries: the Boston circulatory arrest trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126(5):1385–1396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Majnemer A, Limperopoulos C, Shevell M, Rosenblatt B, Rohlicek C, Tchervenkov C (2006) Long-term neuromotor outcome at school entry of infants with congenital heart defects requiring open-heart surgery. J Pediatr 148(1):72–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McBride MG, Kirshbom PM, Gaynor JW, Ittenbach RF, Wernovsky G, Clancy RR, Flynn TB, Hartman DM, Spray TL, Tanel RE, Santiago MC, Paridon SM (2007) Late cardiopulmonary and musculoskeletal exercise performance after repair for total anomalous pulmonary venous connection during infancy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 133(6):1533–1539CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Snookes SH, Gunn JK, Eldridge BJ, Donath SM, Hunt RW, Galea MP, Shekerdemian L (2010) A systematic review of motor and cognitive outcomes after early surgery for congenital heart disease. Pediatrics 125(4):E818–E827CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    HovelsGurich HH et al (1997) Cognitive and motor development in preschool and school-aged children after neonatal arterial switch operation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 114(4):578–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Karl TR, Hall S, Ford G, Kelly EA, Brizard CPR, Mee RBB, Weintraub RG, Cochrane AD, Glidden D (2004) Arterial switch with full-flow cardiopulmonary bypass and limited circulatory arrest: neurodevelopmental outcome. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 127(1):213–222CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Taur S et al (2014) Use of computerized tests to evaluate psychomotor performance in children with specific learning disabilities in comparison to normal children. Indian J Med Res 140:644–648PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Holm I, Fredriksen PM, Fosdahl MA, Olstad M, Vøllestad N (2007) Impaired motor competence in school-aged children with complex congenital heart disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 161(10):945–950CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ewing-Cobbs L, Barnes MA, Fletcher JM (2003) Early brain injury in children: development and reorganization of cognitive function. Dev Neuropsychol 24(2–3):669–704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Daliento L, Mapelli D, Volpe B (2006) Measurement of cognitive outcome and quality of life in congenital heart disease. Heart 92(4):569–574CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Youpeng Jin
    • 1
  • Jinlong Liu
    • 1
  • Wei Wang
    • 1
  • Yujuan Wang
    • 1
  • Yi Yin
    • 1
  • Xiaowei Xin
    • 1
  • Bo Han
    • 1
  1. 1.Shandong Provincial Hospital affiliated to Shandong UniversityJinanChina

Personalised recommendations