Neurological Sciences

, Volume 39, Issue 7, pp 1237–1244 | Cite as

The Italian validation of the minimal assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis (MACFIMS) and the application of the Cognitive Impairment Index scoring procedure in MS patients

  • Ornella Argento
  • Chiara C. Incerti
  • Maria E. Quartuccio
  • Giuseppe Magistrale
  • Ada Francia
  • Carlo Caltagirone
  • Valerio Pisani
  • Ugo Nocentini
Original Article


Cognitive dysfunction occurs in almost 50–60% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) even in early stages of the disease and affects different aspects of patient’s life. Aims of the present study were (1) to introduce and validate an Italian version of the minimal assessment of cognitive functions in MS (MACFIMS) battery and (2) to propose the use of the Cognitive Impairment Index (CII) as a scoring procedure to define the degree of impairment in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary-progressive (SPMS) patients. A total of 240 HC and 123 MS patients performed the Italian version of the MACFIMS composed by the same tests as the original except for the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test. The CII was derived for each score of the 11 scales for participants of both groups. The results of the study show that cognitive impairment affects around 50% of our sample of MS patients. In RRMS group, only the 15.7% of patients reported a severe impairment, while in the group of SPMS, the 51.4% of patients felt in the “severely impaired” group. Results are in line with previously reported percentages of impairment in MS patients, showing that the calculation of the CII applied to the Italian version of the MACFIMS is sensitive and reliable in detecting different degrees of impairment in MS patients.


MACFIMS Cognitive Impairment Index Multiple sclerosis Italian validation 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicting financial interests.

Ethical approval

All procedures involving human participants performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study was approved by the local ethical committee on May 28, 2014 (Prot. CE/PROG.444-09). Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study. We thank the patients for their willing participation in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurology and Neurorehabilitation UnitI.R.C.C.S. “Santa Lucia” FoundationRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Systems MedicineUniversity of Rome “Tor Vergata”RomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Neurological SciencesUniversity of Rome “Sapienza”RomeItaly

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