Neurological Sciences

, Volume 39, Issue 4, pp 761–763 | Cite as

A commercially available device suppresses photic driving: implications for EEG recording

  • Sara Gasparini
  • Chiara Sueri
  • Tiziana D’Agostino
  • Vittoria Cianci
  • Cinzia Grazia Leonardi
  • Umberto Aguglia
  • Edoardo Ferlazzo
Brief Communication
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

Intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) is an activation procedure routinely performed during EEG. The EEG response may consist in physiological photic driving (PPD) or in photoparoxysmal response (PPR). Sometimes, the distinction between PPR and PPD can be challenging, especially in case of PPR limited to posterior regions (Waltz type 1 or 2). A commercially available device, namely Zeiss Clarlet F133 lenses (ZEISS lenses), can suppress PPR, while its influence on PPD is still unknown. This study aims to test the effect of ZEISS lenses on PPD at different flash frequencies. We prospectively collected all consecutive EEGs showing PPD to IPS, performed both with eyes open and closed at stimulation frequencies between 3 and 24 Hz. When PPD was present, IPS with ZEISS lenses was performed. We analyzed the presence of PPD without and with lenses by means of McNemar’s test We included 97 EEGs showing PPD. This response was more commonly obtained at flash frequencies between 6 and 12 Hz. The use of ZEISS lenses significantly decreased the proportion of subjects showing PPD at each frequency (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). ZEISS lenses significantly reduce the proportion of subjects showing PPD at all stimulus frequencies, regardless of eye opening or closure. Physicians should consider that ZEISS lenses do not allow distinction between PPD and PPR. The effect of ZEISS lenses on PPR and on PPD suppression suggests that these two phenomena derive from similar mechanisms involving the entrainment of neural oscillators within the visual cortex.

Keywords

Device Electroencephalogram Photic driving Photic stimulation Photosensitivity 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Ferlazzo E, Zifkin BG, Andermann E, Andermann F (2005) Cortical triggers in generalized reflex seizures and epilepsies. Brain 128(4):700–710.  https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awh446 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité D, Rubboli G, Hirsch E, Martins da Silva A, Seri S, Wilkins A, Parra J, Covanis A, Elia M, Capovilla G, Stephani U, Harding G (2012) Methodology of photic stimulation revisited: updated European algorithm for visual stimulation in the EEG laboratory. Epilepsia 53(1):16–24.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03319.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Waltz S, Christen HJ, Doose H (1992) The different patterns of the photoparoxysmal response—a genetic study. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 83(2):138–145.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0013-4694(92)90027-F CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Italiano D, Ferlazzo E, Gasparini S, Spina E, Mondello S, Labate A, Gambardella A, Aguglia U (2014) Generalized versus partial reflex seizures: a review. Seizure 23(7):512–520.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2014.03.014 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Covanis A, Stodieck S, Wilkins A (2004) Treatment of photosensitivity. Epilepsia 45S1:40–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Capovilla G, Gambardella A, Rubboli G, Beccaria F, Montagnini A, Aguglia U, Canevini MP, Casellato S, Granata T, Paladin F, Romeo A, Stranci G, Tinuper P, Veggiotti P, Avanzini G, Tassinari CA (2006) Suppressive efficacy by a commercially available blue lens on PPR in 610 photosensitive epilepsy patients. Epilepsia 47(3):529–533.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1528-1167.2006.00463.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kepecs MR, Boro A, Haut S, Kepecs G, Moshé SL (2004) A novel nonpharmacologic treatment for photosensitive epilepsy: a report of three patients tested with blue cross-polarized glasses. Epilepsia 45(9):1158–1162.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0013-9580.2004.07004.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rappelsberger P, Muller-Paschinger IB, Petsche H et al (1979) About the intracortical genesis of spontaneous activity and photic driving: EEG-histological correlations in the visual cortex in rabbits EEG EMG Z. Elektroenzephalogr Elektromyogr Verwandte Geb 10:175–183Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Takashima R, Tanaka H, Kimoto K, Watanabe Y, Hirata K (2015) Topographic analysis of electroencephalographic changes during photic driving responses in patients with migraine. Neuropsychobiology 7:49–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thompson RF, Spencer WA (1966) Habituation: a model phenomenon for the study of neuronal substrates of behavior. Psycological Review 73(1):16–43.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0022681 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia S.r.l., part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical and Surgical SciencesMagna Græcia University of CatanzaroCatanzaroItaly
  2. 2.Regional Epilepsy CenterGreat Metropolitan HospitalReggio CalabriaItaly

Personalised recommendations