Mindfulness and pharmacological prophylaxis have comparable effect on biomarkers of inflammation and clinical indexes in chronic migraine with medication overuse: results at 12 months after withdrawal
- 384 Downloads
Chronic migraine (CM) is a disabling condition arising from a complex mixture of interconnected biological, psychological and social factors, and is often associated with medication overuse (MO). Mindfulness is emerging as a helpful treatment for pain, and one study showed that the longitudinal 12 months’ course of CM-MO patients that attended mindfulness-based treatment alone was similar to that of patients receiving medical prophylaxis alone; in this study, we describe the course of biomarkers of inflammation. Our results provide initial evidence of sustained similar effects on reduced concentration of biomarkers of inflammation, although not sizeable enough to reach statistical significance. Whether more intensive treatment and/or larger samples would lead to greater changes is unknown, but these encouraging preliminary findings suggest further research is warranted.
KeywordsChronic migraine Medication overuse Mindfulness Biomarkers Interleukin-6
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
We certify that there is no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this article.
The studies have been performed in accordance with the ethical standards as laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and latest revisions (the latest in 2013). Patient informed consent to be included in the study has been obtained.
- 1.Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 Collaborators (2015) (2013) Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet 386:743–800Google Scholar
- 3.Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (2013) The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edn (beta version). Cephalalgia 33:629–808Google Scholar
- 9.Castelnuovo G, Giusti EM, Manzoni GM, et al (2016) Psychological considerations in the assessment and treatment of pain in neurorehabilitation and psychological factors predictive of therapeutic response: evidence and recommendations from the Italian consensus conference on pain in neurorehabilitation. Front Psychol 7:468Google Scholar