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Neurological Sciences

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 41–51 | Cite as

Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of neurodegenerative diseases

  • Federica Agosta
  • Sebastiano Galantucci
  • Massimo FilippiEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is playing an increasingly important role in the study of neurodegenerative diseases, delineating the structural and functional alterations determined by these conditions. Advanced MRI techniques are of special interest for their potential to characterize the signature of each neurodegenerative condition and aid both the diagnostic process and the monitoring of disease progression. This aspect will become crucial when disease-modifying (personalized) therapies will be established. MRI techniques are very diverse and go from the visual inspection of MRI scans to more complex approaches, such as manual and automatic volume measurements, diffusion tensor MRI, and functional MRI. All these techniques allow us to investigate the different features of neurodegeneration. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances concerning the use of MRI in some of the most important neurodegenerative conditions, putting an emphasis on the advanced techniques.

Keywords

Magnetic resonance imaging Atrophy Diffusion tensor MRI Resting state functional MRI Alzheimer’s disease Dementia with Lewy bodies Frontotemporal dementia Primary progressive aphasia Parkinson’s disease 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

F Agosta serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Neurology and is Section Editor of NeuroImage: Clinical; and has received research supports from the Italian Ministry of Health, AriSLA—Fondazione Italiana di Ricerca per la Sclerosi Laterale Amiotrofica, and the European Research Council, and speaker honoraria from EXCEMED—Excellence in Medical Education. S. Galantucci reports no disclosures. M. Filippi is Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Neurology; serves on scientific advisory board for Teva Pharmaceutical Industries; has received compensation for consulting services and/or speaking activities from Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec, EXCEMED, Merck Serono, and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries; and receives research support from Bayer Schering Pharma, Biogen Idec, Merck Serono, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Italian Ministry of Health, Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla, Cure PSP, Alzheimer’s and Drug Discovery Foundation, and the Jacques and Gloria Gossweiler Foundation (Switzerland).

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of NeuroscienceSan Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele UniversityMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Neurology, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of NeuroscienceSan Raffaele Scientific InstituteMilanItaly

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