The evaluation of ICHD-3 beta diagnostic criteria for Tolosa–Hunt syndrome: a study of 22 cases of Tolosa–Hunt syndrome
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The objective of the study was to evaluate the amended International Classification of Headache Disorders (third edition, beta version, ICHD-3 beta) with a retrospective analysis. A total of 22 patients diagnosed with painful ophthalmoplegia and Tolosa–Hunt syndrome (THS) in our hospital were retrospectively studied. The following clinical data were collected: symptoms, signs, location of inflammatory tissue, time interval of paresis following the onset of pain, pain and signs of resolution, follow-up and relapse. Pain and diplopia were found in 22 (100 %) and 20 cases (91 %). The sympathetic nerve was involved in 6 cases (27 %). Paresis followed the pain for an average of 8 ± 5.87 days. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed granulomatous lesion that was visible in 20 patients (91 %). 19 patients (86 %) demonstrated the lesions located in the cavernous sinus, orbital apex or superior orbital fissure. One lesion extended to the intracranial structure. Pain was relieved in 20 cases (91 %) within 72 h and no patient had complete relief from paresis. According to our study, we think the time course of relief should be undefined. Headache location is hard to describe accurately. Normal MRI should be involved in THS diagnoses. The lesion of THS can extend beyond the cavernous sinus and the orbit. The time interval between headache and paresis can exceed 2 weeks.
KeywordsPainful ophthalmoplegia Tolosa–Hunt syndrome ICHD Retrospective study
This research received no specific grant from any funding agency.
Conflict of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.
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