Neurological Sciences

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 585–591 | Cite as

Normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in an Italian population sample

  • Gabriella Santangelo
  • Mattia Siciliano
  • Roberto Pedone
  • Carmine Vitale
  • Fabrizia Falco
  • Rossella Bisogno
  • Pietro Siano
  • Paolo Barone
  • Dario Grossi
  • Franco Santangelo
  • Luigi Trojano
Original Article


The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a rapid screening battery, also including subtests to assess frontal functions such as set-shifting, abstraction and cognitive flexibility. MoCA seems to be useful to identify non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and subcortical dementia; it has high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing MCI from mild Alzheimer’s Disease. Previous studies revealed that certain items of MoCA may be culturally biased and highlighted the need for population-based norms for the MoCA. The aim of present study was to collect normative values in a sample of Italian healthy subjects. Four hundred and fifteen Italian healthy subjects (252 women and 163 men) of different ages (age range 21–95 years) and educational level (from primary to university) underwent MoCA and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on MoCA. No significant effect of gender was found. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for MoCA raw scores was built. Inferential cut-off score, estimated using a non-parametric technique, is 15.5 and equivalent scores were computed. Correlation analysis showed a significant but weak correlation between MoCA adjusted scores with MMSE adjusted scores (r = 0.43, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the MoCA in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.


Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) Normative values Cognitive assessment Normative data 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriella Santangelo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mattia Siciliano
    • 1
  • Roberto Pedone
    • 1
  • Carmine Vitale
    • 2
    • 3
  • Fabrizia Falco
    • 1
    • 4
  • Rossella Bisogno
    • 1
  • Pietro Siano
    • 5
  • Paolo Barone
    • 6
  • Dario Grossi
    • 1
  • Franco Santangelo
    • 7
  • Luigi Trojano
    • 1
    • 8
  1. 1.Department of PsychologySecond University of NaplesCasertaItaly
  2. 2.IDC-Hermitage-CapodimonteNaplesItaly
  3. 3.University ParthenopeNaplesItaly
  4. 4.PhD Course on Human Mind and Gender StudiesSecond University and University of Federico IINaplesItaly
  5. 5.Neuropsicologia clinicaAzienda Ospedaliera Universitaria OO.RR. S.Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d’AragonaSalernoItaly
  6. 6.Department of Medicine and Surgery, Neurodegenerative Diseases CenterUniversity of SalernoSalernoItaly
  7. 7.Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic SciencesUniversity of Naples Federico IINaplesItaly
  8. 8.Salvatore Maugeri FoundationScientific Institute of TeleseTelese TermeItaly

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