Neurological Sciences

, Volume 35, Issue 9, pp 1329–1348 | Cite as

Recommendations of the Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) on clinical assessment and management of sleep disorders in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a clinical review

  • B. Guarnieri
  • M. Musicco
  • P. Caffarra
  • F. Adorni
  • I. Appollonio
  • D. Arnaldi
  • A. Bartoli
  • E. Bonanni
  • U. Bonuccelli
  • C. Caltagirone
  • G. Cerroni
  • L. Concari
  • F. I. I. Cosentino
  • S. Fermi
  • R. Ferri
  • G. Gelosa
  • G. Lombardi
  • S. Mearelli
  • F. Nobili
  • S. Passero
  • R. Perri
  • R. Rocchi
  • P. Sucapane
  • G. Tognoni
  • S. Zabberoni
  • S. Sorbi
Review Article


Clinical assessment and management of sleep disturbances in patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia has important clinical and social implications. Poor sleep results in an increased risk of morbidities and mortality in demented patients and is a source of stress for caregivers. Sleep disturbances show high prevalence in mild cognitive impairment and dementia patients and they are often associated one to another in the same patient. A careful clinical evaluation of sleep disorders should be performed routinely in the clinical setting of individuals with cognitive decline. The Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) reviewed evidence from original research articles, meta-analyses and systematic reviews published up to December 2013. The evidence was classified in quality levels (I, II, III) and strength of recommendations (A, B, C, D, E). Where there was a lack of evidence, but clear consensus, good practice points were provided. These recommendations may not be appropriate for all circumstances and should therefore be adopted only after a patient’s individual characteristics have been carefully evaluated.


MCI Dementia Sleep disorders Recommendations 

List of abbreviations




Alzheimer’s disease


Advanced sleep phase disorder


Beck depression inventory-II


Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia


Benzodiazepine receptor agonists


Corticobasal degeneration


Cognitive behavioral therapy


Clinically definite


Clinically probable


Continuous positive airway pressure


Circadian sleep–wake rhythm disturbances


Excessive daytime sleepiness




Epworth sleepiness scale


Frontotemporal dementia


Impulse control disorder


International restless legs study group


Lewy body dementia


Lateral hypothalamus


Melanin-concentrating hormone


Mild cognitive impairment


Munich chronotype questionnaire


Morningness eveningness questionnaire


Multiple system atrophy


Multiple sleep latency test


Mayo sleep questionnaire


Maintenance of wakefulness test


Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome


Parkinson’s disease dementia


Perifornical area


Periodic limb movements




Progressive sopranuclear palsy


Pittsburgh sleep quality index


REM behavior disorder


Restless legs syndrome


Suprachiasmatic nucleus


Sleep-disordered breathing


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors


Vascular dementia


Willis Ekbom disease



The authors wish to thank the Italian Association of Sleep Medicine (AIMS) Committee on neurodegenerative disorders for the important contribution given to this work.


  1. 1.
    Vitiello MV, Prinz PN, Williams DE, Frommlet MS, Ries RK (1990) Sleep disturbances in patients with mild-stage Alzheimer’s disease. J Gerontol 45:131–138Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    McCurry SM, Vitiello MV, Gibbons LE, Logsdon RG, Teri L (2006) Factors associated with caregiver reports of sleep disturbances in persons with dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:112–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Vitiello MV (2006) Sleep in dementia. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:91–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chokroverty S (2009) Sleep and neurodegenerative diseases. Semin Neurol 29:446–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Ayalon L (2006) Diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders in older adults. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:95–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Roepke SK, Ancoli-Israel S (2010) Sleep disorders in the elderly. Indian J Med Res 131:302–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Ayalon L, Salzman C (2008) Sleep in the elderly: normal variations and common sleep disorders. Harv Rev Psychiatry 16:279–286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Monk TH, Buysse DJ, Billy BD, Fletcher ME, Kennedy KS, Schlarb JE, Beach SR (2011) Circadian type and bed-timing regularity in 654 retired seniors: correlations with subjective sleep measures. Sleep 34:235–239PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schmidt C, Peigneux P, Cajochen C (2012) Age-related changes in sleep and circadian rhythms: impact on cognitive performance and underlying neuroanatomical networks. Front Neurol 3:118PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hatfield CF, Herbert J, van Someren EJ, Hodges JR, Hastings MH (2004) Disrupted daily activity/rest cycles in relation to daily cortisol rhythms of home-dwelling patients with early Alzheimer’s dementia. Brain 127:1061–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Most EI, Aboudan S, Scheltens P, Van Someren EJ (2012) Discrepancy between subjective and objective sleep disturbances in early- and moderate-stage Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 20:460–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van Someren EJ (2000) Circadian rhythms and sleep in human aging. Chronobiol Int 17:233–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Swaab DF, Fliers E, Partiman TS (1985) The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the human brain in relation to sex, age and senile dementia. Brain Res 342:37–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kessler BA, Stanley EM, Frederick-Duus D, Fadel J (2011) Age-related loss of orexin/hypocretin neurons. Neuroscience 178:82–88PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bourgin P, Huitrón-Résendiz S, Spier AD, Fabre V, Morte B, Criado JR, Sutcliffe JG, Henriksen SJ, de Lecea L (2000) Hypocretin-1 modulates rapid eye movement sleep through activation of locus coeruleus neurons. J Neurosci 20:7760–7765PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ju YE, McLeland JS, Toedebusch CD, Xiong C, Fagan AM, Duntley SP, Morris JC, Holtzman DM (2013) Sleep quality and preclinical Alzheimer disease. JAMA Neurol 70:587–593PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second edition (2005) Diagnostic and coding manual. American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Westchester ILGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fuh J-L, Wang S-J, Cummings JL (2005) Neuropsychiatric profiles in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 76:1337–1341PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCurry SM, Reynolds CF, Ancoli-Israel S, Teri L, Vitiello MV (2000) Treatment of sleep disturbance in Alzheimer’s disease. Sleep Med Rev 4:603–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Moe KE, Vitiello MV, Larsen LH, Prinz PN (1995) Symposium: cognitive processes and sleep disturbances: sleep/wake patterns in Alzheimer’s disease: relationships with cognition and function. J Sleep Res 4:15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vitiello MV, Borson S (2001) Sleep disturbances in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment. CNS Drugs 15:777–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gagnon J-F, Vendette M, Postuma RB et al (2009) Mild cognitive impairment in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 66:39–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Borroni B, Agosti C, Padovani A (2008) Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia with Lewy-bodies (DLB): frequency and relationship with disease severity and motor impairment. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 46:101–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Anderson KN, Hatfield C, Kipps C, Hastings M, Hodges JR (2009) Disrupted sleep and circadian patterns in frontotemporal dementia. Eur J Neurol 16:317–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Guarnieri B et al (2012) Prevalence of sleep disturbances in mild cognitive impairment and dementing disorders: a multicenter Italian clinical cross-sectional study on 431 patients. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 33:50–58PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Britton TC, Chaudhuri KR (2009) REM sleep behavior disorder and the risk of developing Parkinson disease or dementia. Neurology 72:1294–1295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boeve BF (2010) REM sleep behavior disorder: updated review of the core features, the REM sleep behavior disorder-neurodegenerative disease association, evolving concepts, controversies, and future directions. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1184:15–54PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Terzano MG, Cirignotta F, Mondini S, Ferini-Strambi L, Parrino L (2006) Progetto Morfeo Committee. Studio Morfeo 2: survey on the management of insomnia by Italian general practitioners. Sleep Med 7:599–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jennum P, Santamaria J (2007) Members of the task force. Report of an EFNS task force on management of sleep disorders in neurologic disease (degenerative neurologic disorders and stroke). Eur J Neurol 14:1189–1200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Waldemar G, Dubois B, Emre M, Georges J, McKeith IG, Rossor M, Scheltens P, Tariska P, Winblad B, EFNS (2007) Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders associated with dementia: EFNS guideline. Eur J Neurol 14:1–26Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dauvilliers Y (2007) Insomnia in patients with neurodegenerative conditions. Sleep Med 8:27–34Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bloom HG, Ahmed I, Alessi CA, Ancoli-Israel S, Buysse DJ, Kryger MH, Phillips BA, Thorpy MJ, Vitiello MV, Zee PC (2009) Evidence-based recommendations for the assessment and management of sleep disorders in older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc 57:761–789PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    National Institutes of Health (2005) National Institutes of Health State of the Science Conference statement on Manifestations and Management of Chronic Insomnia in Adults. Sleep 28:1049–1057Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Terzano MG, Parrino L, Cirignotta F, Ferini-Strambi L, Gigli G, Rudelli G et al (2004) Studio Morfeo: insomnia in primary care, a survey conducted on the Italian population. Sleep Med 5:67–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Knutson KL, Rathouz PJ, Yan LL, Liu K, Lauderdale DS (2006) Stability of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index and the Epworth sleepiness questionnaires over 1 year in early middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study. Sleep 29:1503–1506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Carpenter JS, Andrykowski MA (1998) Psychometric evaluation of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. J Psychosom Res 45:5–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Buysse DJ, Reynolds CF 3rd, Monk TH, Hoch CC, Yeager AL, Kupfer DJ (1991) Quantification of subjective sleep quality in healthy elderly men and women using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Sleep 14:331–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gentili A, Weiner DK, Kuchibhatla M, Edinger JD (1995) Test-retest reliability of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index in nursing home residents. J Am Geriatr Soc 43:1317–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Backhaus J, Junghanns K, Broocks A, Riemann D, Hohagen F (2002) Test-retest reliability and validity of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index in primary insomnia. J Psychosom Res 53:737–740PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Curcio G, Tempesta D, Scarlata S, Marzano C, Moroni F, Rossini PM, Ferrara M, De Gennaro L (2012) Validity of the Italian Version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Neurol Sci 34:511–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hort J, O’Brien JT, Gainotti G, Pirttila T, Popescu BO, Rektorova I, Sorbi S, Scheltens P (2010) EFNS Scientist Panel on Dementia. EFNS guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Alzheimer’s disease. Eur J Neurol 17:1236–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Katz IR (1998) Diagnosis and treatment of depression in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. J Clin Psychiatry 9:38–44Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Teri L, Ferretti LE, Gibbons LE, Logsdon RG, McCurry SM, Kukull WA, McCormick WC, Bowen JD, Larson EB (1999) Anxiety of Alzheimer’s disease: prevalence, and comorbidity. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 54:348–352Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Bhatt MH, Podder N, Chokroverty S (2005) Sleep and neurodegenerative diseases. Semin Neurol 25:39–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Morgenthaler T, Alessi C, Friedman L, Owens J, Kapur V, Boehlecke B, Brown T, Chesson A Jr, Coleman J, Lee-Chiong T, Pancer J, Swick TJ, Standards of Practice Committee; American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2007) Practice parameters for the use of actigraphy in the assessment of sleep and sleep disorders: an update for 2007. Sleep 30:519–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Piani A, Brotini S, Dolso P, Budai R, Gigli GL (2004) Sleep disturbances in elderly: a subjective evaluation over 65. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl 9:325–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fetveit A, Bjorvatn B (2006) Sleep duration during the 24-hour day is associated with the severity of dementia in nursing home patients. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 21:945–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gentili A, Weiner DK, Kuchibhatil M, Edinger JD (1997) Factors that disturb sleep in nursing home residents. Aging (Milano) 9(3):207–213Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Johns MW (1991) A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep 14:540–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vignatelli L, Plazzi G, Barbato A, Ferini-Strambi L, Manni R, Pompei F, D’Alessandro R (2003) GINSEN (Gruppo Italiano Narcolessia Studio Epidemiologico Nazionale). Italian version of the Epworth sleepiness scale: external validity. Neurol Sci 23:295–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rinaldi R, Vignatelli L, D’Alessandro R, Bassein L, Sforza E, Plazzi G, Provini F, Lugaresi E (2001) Validation of symptoms related to excessive daytime sleepiness. Neuroepidemiology 20:248–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Cole R, Alessi C, Chambers M, Moorcroft W, Pollak CP (2003) The role of actigraphy in the study of sleep and circadian rhythms. Sleep 26:342–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Littner MR, Kushida C, Wise M, Davila DG, Morgenthaler T, Lee-Chiong T, Hirshkowitz M, Daniel LL, Bailey D, Berry RB, Kapen S, Kramer M, Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2005) Practice parameters for clinical use of the multiple sleep latency test and the maintenance of wakefulness test. Sleep 28:113–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wallace DM, Ramos AR, Rundek T (2012) Sleep disorders and stroke. Int J Stroke 7:231–242PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hardeland R (2012) Melatonin in aging and disease—multiple consequences of reduced secretion, options and limits of treatment. Aging Dis 3:194–225PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Skene DJ, Swaab DF (2003) Melatonin rhythmicity: effect of age and Alzheimer’s disease. Exp Gerontol 38:199–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    La Morgia C, Ross-Cisneros FN, Hannibal J, Montagna P, Sadun AA, Carelli V (2011) Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells: implications for human diseases. Vision Res 51:296–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lamont EW, Legault-Coutu D, Cermakian N, Boivin DB (2007) The role of circadian clock genes in mental disorders. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 9:333–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Thome J, Coogan AN, Woods AG, Darie CC, Häßler F (2011) CLOCK genes and circadian rhythmicity in Alzheimer disease. J Aging ResGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Yesavage JA, Noda A, Hernandez B, Friedman L, Cheng JJ, Tinklenberg JR, Hallmayer J, O’hara R, David R, Robert P, Landsverk E, Zeitzer JM, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (2011) Circadian clock gene polymorphisms and sleep–wake disturbance in Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 19:635–643PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wu YH, Fischer DF, Kalsbeek A, Garidou-Boof ML, van der Vliet J, van Heijningen C, Liu RY, Zhou JN, Swaab DF (2006) Pineal clock gene oscillation is disturbed in Alzheimer’s disease, due to functional disconnection from the “master clock”. FASEB J 20:1874–1876PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Stopa EG, Volicer L, Kuo-Leblanc V, Harper D, Lathi D, Tate B, Satlin A (1999) Pathologic evaluation of the human suprachiasmatic nucleus in severe dementia. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 58(1):29–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Koronyo Y, Salumbides BC, Black KL, Koronyo-Hamaoui M (2012) Alzheimer’s disease in the retina: imaging retinal aβ plaques for early diagnosis and therapy assessment. Neurodegener Dis 10:285–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Huitrón-Reséndiz S, Sánchez-Alavez M, Criado JR (2005) Sleep–wake states in transgenic mouse models overexpressing the human beta-amyloid precursor protein. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 20(2):87–90PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ho CY, Troncoso JC, Knox D, Stark W, Eberhart CG (2013) Beta-Amyloid, Phospho-Tau and Alpha-Synuclein Deposits Similar to Those in the Brain Are Not Identified in the Eyes of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease Patients. Brain PatholGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Slats D, Claassen JA, Lammers GJ, Melis RJ, Verbeek MM, Overeem S (2012) Association between hypocretin-1 and amyloid-β42 cerebrospinal fluid levels in Alzheimer’s disease and healthy controls. Curr Alzheimer Res 9:1119–1125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Khachiyants N, Trinkle D, Son SJ, Kim KY (2011) Sundown syndrome in persons with dementia: an update. Psychiatry Investig 8:275–287PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bjorvatn B, Pallesen S (2009) A practical approach to circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev 13:47–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Mecacci L, Zani A (1983) Morningness-eveningness preferences and sleep-waking dairy data of morning and evening types in student and worker samples. Ergonomics 26:1147–1153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zavada A, Gordijn MC, Beersma DG, Daan S, Roenneberg T (2005) Comparison of the Munich chronotype questionnaire with the Horne–Ostberg’s morningness-eveningness score. Chronobiol Int 22:267–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dodson ER, Zee PC (2010) Therapeutics for circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Sleep Med Clin 5:701–715PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Parati G, Lombardi C, Hedner J, Bonsignore MR, Grote L, Tkacova R, Levy P, Riha R, Bassetti C, Narkiewicz K, Mancia G, McNicholas WT, European Respiratory Society; EU COST ACTION B26 members (2012) Position paper on the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension: joint recommendations by the European Society of Hypertension, by the European Respiratory Society and by the members of European COST (COoperation in Scientific and Technological research) ACTION B26 on obstructive sleep apnea. J Hypertens 30:633–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McNicholas WT (2008) Diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adults. Proc Am Thorac Soc 5:154–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    McNicholas WT, Bonsignore MR (2010) Sleep Apnoea. Eur Respir Soc Monogr 50:2010Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bombois S, Derambure P, Pasquier F, Monaca C Sleep disorders in aging and dementia. J Nutr Health Aging 14:212–217Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Svatikova A, Wolk R, Shamsuzzaman AS, Kara T, Olson EJ, Somers VK (2003) Serum amyloid a in obstructive sleep apnea. Circulation 108:1451–1454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ancoli-Israel S, Palmer BW, Cooke JR, Corey-Bloom J, Fiorentino L, Natarajan L, Liu L, Ayalon L, He F, Loredo JS (2008) Cognitive effects of treating obstructive sleep apnea in Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized controlled study. J Am Geriatr Soc 56:2076–2081PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bliwise DL (2002) Sleep apnea, APOE4 and Alzheimer’s disease 20 years and counting? J Psychosom Res 53:539–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Abrams B (2005) Add Alzheimer’s to the list of sleep apnea consequences. Med Hypotheses 65:1201–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    St Louis EK (2010) Diagnosing and treating co-morbid sleep apnea in neurological disorders. Pract Neurol (Fort Wash Pa) 9:26–30Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chong MS, Ayalon L, Marler M, Loredo JS, Corey-Bloom J, Palmer BW, Liu L, Ancoli-Israel S (2006) Continuous positive airway pressure reduces subjective daytime sleepiness in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease with sleep disordered breathing. J Am Geriatr Soc 54:777–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cooke JR, Ancoli-Israel S, Liu L, Loredo JS, Natarajan L, Palmer BS, He F, Corey-Bloom J (2009) Continuous positive airway pressure deepens sleep in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Sleep Med 10:1101–1106PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cooke JR, Ayalon L, Palmer BW, Loredo JS, Corey-Bloom J, Natarajan L, Liu L, Ancoli-Israel S (2009) Sustained use of CPAP slows deterioration of cognition, sleep, and mood in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and obstructive sleep apnea: a preliminary study. J Clin Sleep Med 5:305–309PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gehrman PR, Martin JL, Shochat T, Nolan S, Corey-Bloom J, Ancoli-Israel S (2003) Sleep-disordered breathing and agitation in institutionalized adults with Alzheimer disease. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 11:426–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sforza E, Roche F, Thomas-Anterion C, Kerleroux J, Beauchet O, Celle S, Maudoux D, Pichot V, Laurent B, Barthélémy JC (2010) Cognitive function and sleep related breathing disorders in a healthy elderly population: the SYNAPSE study. Sleep 33:515–521PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hermann DM, Bassetti CL (2009) Sleep-related breathing and sleep–wake disturbances in ischemic stroke. Neurology 73:1313–1322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Stepnowsky CJ, Ancoli-Israel S (2008) Sleep and its disorders in seniors. Sleep Med Clin 3:281–293PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Netzer NC, Stoohs RA, Netzer CM, Clark K, Strohl KP (1999) Using the Berlin questionnaire to identify patients at risk for the sleep apnea syndrome. Ann Intern Med 131:485–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Collop NA, Anderson WM, Boehlecke B, Claman D, Goldberg R, Gottlieb DJ, Hudgel D, Sateia M, Schwab R, Portable Monitoring Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2007) Clinical guidelines for the use of unattended portable monitors in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea in adult patients. Portable monitoring task force of the American academy of sleep medicine. J Clin Sleep Med 3:737–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Boeve BF, Silber MH, Saper CB, Ferman TJ, Dickson DW, Parisi JE et al (2007) Pathophysiology of REM sleep behavior disorder and relevance to neurodegenerative disease. Brain 130:2770–2788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Iranzo A, Molinuevo JL, Santamaría J, Serradell M, Martí MJ, Valldeoriola F et al (2006) Rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder as an early marker for a neurodegenerative disorder: a descriptive study. Lancet Neurol 5:572–577PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Boeve BF, Silber MH, Parisi JE et al (2003) Synucleinopathy pathology and REM sleep behavior disorder plus dementia or parkinsonism. Neurology 61:40–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Trotti LM (2010) REM sleep behaviour disorder in older individuals: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management. Drugs Aging 27:457–470PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Boeve BF, Molano JR, Ferman TJ, Smith GE, Lin SC, Bieniek K, Haidar W, Tippmann-Peikert M, Knopman DS, Graff-Radford NR, Lucas JA, Petersen RC, Silber MH (2011) Validation of the Mayo sleep questionnaire to screen for REM sleep behavior disorder in an aging and dementia cohort. Sleep Med 12:445–453PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Scaglione C, Vignatelli L, Plazzi G, Marchese R, Negrotti A, Rizzo G, Lopane G, Bassein L, Maestri M, Bernardini S, Martinelli P, Abbruzzese G, Calzetti S, Bonuccelli U, Provini F, Coccagna G, Bologna, Genova, Parma and Pisa Universities group for the study of REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson’s disease (2005) REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson’s disease: a questionnaire-based study. Neurol Sci 25:316–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Winkelman JW, Finn L, Young T (2006) Prevalence and correlates of restless legs syndrome symptoms in the Wisconsin sleep cohort. Sleep Med 7:545–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hening W, Walters AS, Allen RP, Montplaisir J, Myers A, Ferini-Strambi L (2004) Impact, diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a primary care population: the REST (RLS epidemiology, symptoms, and treatment) primary care study. Sleep Med 5:237–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Manconi M, Ferri R, Zucconi M, Bassetti CL, Fulda S, Aricò D, Ferini-Strambi L (2012) Dissociation of periodic leg movements from arousals in restless legs syndrome. Ann Neurol 71:834–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Allen R (2004) Dopamine and iron in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Sleep Med 5:385–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Allen RP, Picchietti D, Hening WA, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Montplaisi J, Restless Legs Syndrome Diagnosis and Epidemiology Workshop at the National Institutes of Health, International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (2003) Restless legs syndrome: diagnostic criteria, special considerations, and epidemiology. A report from the restless legs syndrome diagnosis and epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Sleep Med 4:101–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Rothdach AJ, Trenkwalder C, Haberstock J, Keil U, Berger K (2000) Prevalence and risk factors of RLS in an elderly population: the MEMO study. Memory and morbidity in Augsburg elderly. Neurology 54:1064–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rye DB, Trotti LM (2012) Restless legs syndrome and periodic leg movements of sleep. Neurol Clin 30:1137–1166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Talarico G, Canevelli M, Tosto G, Vanacore N, Letteri F, Prastaro M, Troili F, Gasparini M, Lenzi GL, Bruno G (2013) Restless legs syndrome in a group of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 28:165–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rizzo G, Tonon C, Testa C, Manners D, Vetrugno R, Pizza F, Marconi S, Malucelli E, Provini F, Plazzi G, Montagna P, Lodi R (2012) Abnormal medial thalamic metabolism in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome. Brain 135:3712–3720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rose KM, Beck C, Tsai PF, Liem PH, Davila DG, Kleban M, Gooneratne NS, Kalra G, Richards KC (2011) Sleep disturbances and nocturnal agitation behaviors in older adults with dementia. Sleep 34(6):779–786PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Richards K, Shue VM, Beck CK, Lambert CW, Bliwise DL (2010) Restless legs syndrome risk factors, behaviors, and diagnoses in persons with early to moderate dementia and sleep disturbance. Behav Sleep Med 8:48–61PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hening W, Allen RP, Tenzer P, Winkelman JW (2007) Restless legs syndrome: demographics, presentation, and differential diagnosis. Geriatrics 62:26–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Michaud M, Paquet J, Lavigne G, Desautels A, Montplaisir J (2002) Sleep laboratory diagnosis of restless legs syndrome. Eur Neurol 48:108–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hening WA, Allen RP, Washburn M, Lesage SR, Earley CJ (2009) The four diagnostic criteria for restless legs syndrome are unable to exclude confounding conditions (“mimics”). Sleep Med 10:976–981PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Paulus W, Trenkwalder C (2006) Less is more: pathophysiology of dopaminergic-therapy-related augmentation in restless legs syndrome. Lancet Neurol 5:878–886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Walters AS, LeBrocq C, Dhar A, Hening W, Rosen R, Allen RP, Trenkwalder C, International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (2003) Validation of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale for restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med 4:121–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Cippà MA, Baumann CR, Siccoli MM, Bassetti CL, Poryazova R, Werth E (2013) Actigraphic assessment of periodic leg movements in patients with restless legs syndrome. J Sleep Res 22:589–592PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kazenwadel J, Pollmächer T, Trenkwalder C, Oertel WH, Kohnen R, Künzel M, Krüger HP (1995) New actigraphic assessment method for periodic leg movements (PLM). Sleep 18:689–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Mayer G, Jennum P, Riemann D, Dauvilliers Y (2011) Insomnia in central neurologic diseases-occurrence and management. Sleep Med Rev 15:369–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wolkove N, Elkholy O, Baltzan M, Palayew M (2007) Sleep and aging: 1. Sleep disorders commonly found in older people. CMAJ 176:1299–1304PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kripke DF (2000) Chronic hypnotic use: deadly risks, doubtful benefit. Review article. Sleep Med Rev 4:5–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Roehrs T, Roth T (2012) Insomnia pharmacotherapy. Neurotherapeutics 9:728–738PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Morin CM, Colecchi C, Stone J, Sood R, Brink D (1999) Behavioral and pharmacological therapies for late-life insomnia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 281:991–999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wolkove N, Elkholy O, Baltzan M, Palayew M (2007) Sleep and aging: 2. Management of sleep disorders in older people. CMAJ 176:1449–1454PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    McCurry SM, Pike KC, Vitiello MV, Logsdon RG, Larson EB, Teri L (2011) Increasing walking and bright light exposure to improve sleep in community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer’s disease: results of a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 59:1393–1402PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Richards KC, Beck C, O’Sullivan PS, Shue VM (2005) Effect of individualized social activity on sleep in nursing home residents with dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 53:1510–1517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gitlin LN, Winter L, Dennis MP, Hodgson N, Hauck WW (2010) Targeting and managing behavioral symptoms in individuals with dementia: a randomized trial of a nonpharmacological intervention. J Am Geriatr Soc 58:1465–1474PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Glass J, Lanctôt KL, Herrmann N, Sproule BA, Busto UE (2005) Sedative hypnotics in older people with insomnia: meta-analysis of risks and benefits. BMJ 331:1169PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Shub D, Darvishi R, Kunik ME (2009) Non-pharmacologic treatment of insomnia in persons with dementia. Geriatrics 64:22–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Sadowsky CH, Galvin JE (2012) Guidelines for the management of cognitive and behavioral problems in dementia. J Am Board Fam Med 25:350–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Salzman C, Jeste DV, Meyer RE, Cohen-Mansfield J, Cummings J, Grossberg GT, Jarvik L, Kraemer HC, Lebowitz BD, Maslow K, Pollock BG, Raskind M, Schultz SK, Wang P, Zito JM, Zubenko GS (2008) Elderly patients with dementia-related symptoms of severe agitation and aggression: consensus statement on treatment options, clinical trials methodology, and policy. J Clin Psychiatry 69:889–898PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Overeem S, Reading P (2010) Sleep disorders in neurology- A practical approach, Wiley Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Italian edition by Mutani R. and Cicolin A, Edizioni Minerva MedicaGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Mendelson WB (1994) Sleepwalking associated with zolpidem. J Clin Psychopharmacol 14:150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Morgenthaler TI, Silber MH (2002) Amnestic sleep-related eating disorder associated with zolpidem. Sleep Med 3:323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Najjar M (2007) Zolpidem and amnestic sleep related eating disorder. J Clin Sleep Med 3:637–638PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Morley JE (2013) Behavioral management in the person with dementia. J Nutr Health Aging 17:35–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Roth T, Seiden D, Sainati S, Wang-Weigand S, Zhang J, Zee P (2006) Effects of Ramelteon on patient-reported sleep latency in older adults with chronic insomnia. Sleep Med 7:312–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lake JT, Grossberg GT (1996) Management of psychosis, agitation and other behavioral problems in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychiatr Ann 26:274–279Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Camargos EF, Pandolfi MB, Freitas MP, Quintas JL, Lima Jde O, Miranda LC, Pimentel W, Medeiros-Souza P (2011) Trazodone for the treatment of sleep disorders in dementia: an open-label, observational and review study. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 69:44–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Zhdanova IV, Wurtman RJ, Regan MM, Taylor JA, Shi JP, Leclair OU (2001) Melatonin treatment for age-related insomnia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:4727–4730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Olde Rikkert MG, Rigaud AS (2001) melatonin in elderly patients with insomnia: a systematic review. Z Gerontol Gertiatr 34:491–497Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Singer C, Tractenberg R, Kaye J, Schafer K, Gamst A, Grundman M, Thomas R, Thal L (2002) ADCS clinical trial of melatonin for the sleep disturbance of Alzheimer’s: Case report of an unusual sleep/wake cycle and response to melatonin. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 10:92Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Serfaty M, Kennell-Webb S, Warner J, Blizard R, Raven P (2002) Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial of low dose melatonin for sleep disorders in dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 17:1120–1127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Singer C, Tractenberg RE, Kaye J, Schafer K, Gamst A, Grundman M, Thomas R, Thal LJ, Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study (2003) A multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of melatonin for sleep disturbance in Alzheimer’s disease. Sleep 26:893–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Mendelson WB (2007) Combining pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies for insomnia. J Clin Psychiatry 5:19–23Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Logsdon RG, McCurry SM, Teri L (2007) Evidence-based psychological treatments for disruptive behaviors in individuals with dementia. Psychol Aging 22:28–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Ballard C, Howard R (2006) Neuroleptic drugs in dementia: benefits and harm. Nat Rev Neurosci 7:492–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    McCall WV (2005) Diagnosis and management of insomnia in older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 53:272–277Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Bains J, Birks JS, Dening TR (2002) The efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of depression in dementia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD003944Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gauthier S, Loft H, Cummings J (2008) Improvement in behavioural symptoms in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease by memantine: a pooled data analysis. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 23:537–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Trinh NH, Hoblyn J, Mohanty S, Yaffe K (2003) Efficacy of cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional impairment in Alzheimer disease: a meta-analysis. JAMA 289:210–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Larsson V, Aarsland D, Ballard C, Minthon L, Londos E (2010) The effect of memantine on sleep behaviour in dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 25:1030–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Boddy F, Rowan EN, Lett D, O’Brien JT, McKeith IG, Burn DJ (2007) Subjectively reported sleep quality and excessive daytime somnolence in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 22:529–535PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Rongve A, Aarsland D (2006) Management of Parkinson’s disease dementia : practical considerations. Drugs Aging 23:807–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Garcia-Borreguero D, Schwarz C, Larrosa O, de la Llave Y, Garcia de Yébenes J (2003) L-DOPA-induced excessive daytime sleepiness in PD: a placebo-controlled case with MSLT assessment. Neurology 61(7):1008–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Arnulf I (2005) Excessive daytime sleepiness in parkinsonism. Sleep Med Rev 9:185–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Serrano C, García-Borreguero D (2004) Fluctuations in cognition and alertness in Parkinson’s disease and dementia. Neurology 63:31–34Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Tyne HL, Taylor J, Baker GA, Steiger MJ (2010) Modafinil for Parkinson’s disease fatigue. J Neurol 257:452–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Adler CH, Caviness JN, Hentz JG, Lind M, Tiede J (2003) Randomized trial of modafinil for treating subjective daytime sleepiness in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 18:287–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Lyons KE, Friedman JH, Hermanowicz N, Isaacson SH, Hauser RA, Hersh BP, Silver DE, Tetrud JW, Elmer LW, Parashos SA, Struck LK, Lew MF, Pahwa R (2010) Orally disintegrating selegiline in Parkinson patients with dopamine agonist-related adverse effects. Clin Neuropharmacol 33:5–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Billiard M, Bassetti C, Dauvilliers Y, Dolenc-Groselj L, Lammers GJ, Mayer G, Pollmächer T, Reading P, Sonka K, EFNS Task Force (2006) EFNS guidelines on management of narcolepsy. Eur J Neurol 13:1035–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Campbell SS, Terman M, Lewy AJ, Dijk DJ, Eastman CI, Boulos Z (1995) Light treatment for sleep disorders: consensus report. V. Age-related disturbances. J Biol Rhythms 10:151–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Dowling GA, Burr RL, Van Someren EJ, Hubbard EM, Luxenberg JS, Mastick J, Cooper BA (2008) Melatonin and bright-light treatment for rest-activity disruption in institutionalized patients with Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 56:239–246PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Parati G, Lombardi C, Hedner J, Bonsignore MR, Grote L, Tkacova R, Levy P, Riha R, Bassetti C, Siccoli M, Narkiewicz K, Somers V, Mancia G, McNicholas W (2010) Consensus document on the management of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension. In: Joint recommendations by The European COST Action B26, The European Society of Hypertension and The European Respiratory SocietyGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Ancoli-Israel S (2007) Sleep apnea in older adults is it real and should age be the determining factor in the treatment decision matrix? Sleep Med Rev 11:83–85PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Stepnowsky CJ Jr, Marler MR, Ancoli-Israel S (2002) Determinants of nasal CPAP compliance. Sleep Med 3:239–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Ayalon L, Ancoli-Israel S, Stepnowsky C, Marler M, Palmer BW, Liu L, Loredo JS, Corey-Bloom J, Greenfield D, Cooke J (2006) Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:176–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Moraes W, Poyares D, Sukys-Claudino L, Guilleminault C, Tufik S (2008) Donepezil improves obstructive sleep apnea in Alzheimer disease: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Chest 133:677–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Aurora RN, Zak RS, Maganti RK, Auerbach SH, Casey KR, Chowdhuri S, Karippot A, Ramar K, Kristo DA, Morgenthaler TI, Standards of Practice Committee; American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2010) Best practice guide for the treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). J Clin Sleep Med 6:85–95PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Malhotra R, Avidan AY (2012) Neurodegenerative disease and REM behavior disorder. Curr Treat Options Neurol 14:474–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    McCarter SJ, Boswell CL, St Louis EK, Dueffert LG, Slocumb N, Boeve BF, Silber MH, Olson EJ, Tippmann-Peikert M (2013) Treatment outcomes in REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med 14:237–242PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Fantini ML, Gagnon JF, Filipini D, Montplaisir J (2003) The effects of pramipexole in REM sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 61:1418–1420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Howell MJ, Arneson PA, Schenck CH (2011) A novel therapy for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). J Clin Sleep Med 7:639–644PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Aurora RN, Kristo DA, Bista SR, Rowley JA, Zak RS, Casey KR, Lamm CI, Tracy SL, Rosenberg RS (2012) The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults-an update for 2012: practice parameters with an evidence-based systematic review and meta-analyses: an American academy of sleep medicine clinical practice guideline. Sleep 35:1039–1062PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Oertel WH, Trenkwalder C, Zucconi M, Benes H, Borreguero DG, Bassetti C, Partinen M, Ferini-Strambi L, Stiasny-Kolster K (2007) State of the art in restless legs syndrome therapy: practice recommendations for treating restless legs syndrome. Mov Disord 18:466–475Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Garcia-Borreguero D, Stillman P, Benes H, Buschmann H, Chaudhuri KR, Gonzalez Rodríguez VM, Högl B, Kohnen R, Monti GC, Stiasny-Kolster K, Trenkwalder C, Williams AM, Zucconi M (2011) Algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome in primary care. BMC Neurol 11:28PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Oertel WH, Stiasny-Kolster K, Bergtholdt B, Hallström Y, Albo J, Leissner L, Schindler T, Koester J, Reess J, Pramipexole RLS Study Group (2007) Efficacy of pramipexole in restless legs syndrome: a six-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind study (effect-RLS study). Mov Disord 22:213–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Hening WA, Allen RP, Ondo WG, Walters AS, Winkelman JW, Becker P, Bogan R, Fry JM, Kudrow DB, Lesh KW, Fichtner A, Schollmayer E, SP792 Study Group (2010) Rotigotine improves restless legs syndrome: a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the United States. Mov Disord 25:1675–1683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Allen RP, Earley CJ (1996) Augmentation of the restless legs syndrome with carbidopa/levodopa. Sleep 19:205–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    García-Borreguero D, Allen RP, Kohnen R, Högl B, Trenkwalder C, Oertel W, Hening WA, Paulus W, Rye D, Walters A, Winkelmann J, Earley CJ, International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (2007) Diagnostic standards for dopaminergic augmentation of restless legs syndrome: report from a World Association of Sleep Medicine-International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group consensus conference at the Max Planck Institute. Sleep Med 8:520–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Garcia-Borreguero D, Larrosa O, de la Llave Y, Verger K, Masramon X, Hernandez G (2002) Treatment of restless legs syndrome with gabapentin: a double-blind, cross-over study. Neurology 59:1573–1579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Garcia-Borreguero D, Larrosa O, Williams AM, Albares J, Pascual M, Palacios JC, Fernandez C (2010) Treatment of restless legs syndrome with pregabalin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology 74:1897–1904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Lee DO, Ziman RB, Perkins AT, Poceta JS, Walters AS, Barrett RW, XP053 Study Group (2011) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of gabapentin enacarbil in subjects with restless legs syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 7:282–292PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Guarnieri
    • 1
  • M. Musicco
    • 2
  • P. Caffarra
    • 3
  • F. Adorni
    • 2
  • I. Appollonio
    • 4
    • 14
  • D. Arnaldi
    • 5
  • A. Bartoli
    • 6
  • E. Bonanni
    • 7
  • U. Bonuccelli
    • 7
  • C. Caltagirone
    • 8
  • G. Cerroni
    • 1
  • L. Concari
    • 3
  • F. I. I. Cosentino
    • 9
  • S. Fermi
    • 4
    • 14
  • R. Ferri
    • 9
  • G. Gelosa
    • 4
    • 14
  • G. Lombardi
    • 10
  • S. Mearelli
    • 11
  • F. Nobili
    • 5
  • S. Passero
    • 12
  • R. Perri
    • 13
  • R. Rocchi
    • 12
  • P. Sucapane
    • 11
  • G. Tognoni
    • 7
  • S. Zabberoni
    • 13
  • S. Sorbi
    • 10
  1. 1.Center of Sleep Medicine, Villa Serena HospitalPescaraItaly
  2. 2.Italian National Research Center (ITB-CNR)MilanItaly
  3. 3.Neuroscience DepartmentUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  4. 4.Neurology SectionS. Gerardo HospitalMonzaItaly
  5. 5.Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI)University of GenoaGenoaItaly
  6. 6.Department of NeurologyVilla Serena HospitalPescaraItaly
  7. 7.Neuroscience DepartmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  8. 8.Tor Vergata University, S. Lucia Foundation, IRCCSRomeItaly
  9. 9.Department of NeurologyOasi Institute IRCCSTroinaItaly
  10. 10.Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA)University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  11. 11.Department of NeurologyUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  12. 12.Neuroscience DepartmentUniversity of SienaSienaItaly
  13. 13.S. Lucia Foundation, IRCCSRomeItaly
  14. 14.DCMI, University of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations