Neurological Sciences

, Volume 35, Issue 9, pp 1329–1348 | Cite as

Recommendations of the Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) on clinical assessment and management of sleep disorders in individuals with mild cognitive impairment and dementia: a clinical review

  • B. Guarnieri
  • M. Musicco
  • P. Caffarra
  • F. Adorni
  • I. Appollonio
  • D. Arnaldi
  • A. Bartoli
  • E. Bonanni
  • U. Bonuccelli
  • C. Caltagirone
  • G. Cerroni
  • L. Concari
  • F. I. I. Cosentino
  • S. Fermi
  • R. Ferri
  • G. Gelosa
  • G. Lombardi
  • S. Mearelli
  • F. Nobili
  • S. Passero
  • R. Perri
  • R. Rocchi
  • P. Sucapane
  • G. Tognoni
  • S. Zabberoni
  • S. Sorbi
Review Article

Abstract

Clinical assessment and management of sleep disturbances in patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia has important clinical and social implications. Poor sleep results in an increased risk of morbidities and mortality in demented patients and is a source of stress for caregivers. Sleep disturbances show high prevalence in mild cognitive impairment and dementia patients and they are often associated one to another in the same patient. A careful clinical evaluation of sleep disorders should be performed routinely in the clinical setting of individuals with cognitive decline. The Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association (SINDem) reviewed evidence from original research articles, meta-analyses and systematic reviews published up to December 2013. The evidence was classified in quality levels (I, II, III) and strength of recommendations (A, B, C, D, E). Where there was a lack of evidence, but clear consensus, good practice points were provided. These recommendations may not be appropriate for all circumstances and should therefore be adopted only after a patient’s individual characteristics have been carefully evaluated.

Keywords

MCI Dementia Sleep disorders Recommendations 

List of abbreviations

ACT

Actigraphy

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

ASPD

Advanced sleep phase disorder

BDI-II

Beck depression inventory-II

BPSD

Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia

BzRAs

Benzodiazepine receptor agonists

CBD

Corticobasal degeneration

CBT

Cognitive behavioral therapy

CD

Clinically definite

CP

Clinically probable

CPAP

Continuous positive airway pressure

CRSD

Circadian sleep–wake rhythm disturbances

EDS

Excessive daytime sleepiness

EEG

Electroencephalographic

ESS

Epworth sleepiness scale

FTD

Frontotemporal dementia

ICD

Impulse control disorder

IRLSSG

International restless legs study group

LBD

Lewy body dementia

LH

Lateral hypothalamus

MCH

Melanin-concentrating hormone

MCI

Mild cognitive impairment

MCTQ

Munich chronotype questionnaire

MEQ

Morningness eveningness questionnaire

MSA

Multiple system atrophy

MSLT

Multiple sleep latency test

MSQ

Mayo sleep questionnaire

MWT

Maintenance of wakefulness test

OSAS

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

PDD

Parkinson’s disease dementia

PFA

Perifornical area

PLM

Periodic limb movements

PSG

Polysomnography

PSP

Progressive sopranuclear palsy

PSQI

Pittsburgh sleep quality index

RBD

REM behavior disorder

RLS

Restless legs syndrome

SCN

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

SDB

Sleep-disordered breathing

SSRIs

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

VaD

Vascular dementia

WED

Willis Ekbom disease

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the Italian Association of Sleep Medicine (AIMS) Committee on neurodegenerative disorders for the important contribution given to this work.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Guarnieri
    • 1
  • M. Musicco
    • 2
  • P. Caffarra
    • 3
  • F. Adorni
    • 2
  • I. Appollonio
    • 4
    • 14
  • D. Arnaldi
    • 5
  • A. Bartoli
    • 6
  • E. Bonanni
    • 7
  • U. Bonuccelli
    • 7
  • C. Caltagirone
    • 8
  • G. Cerroni
    • 1
  • L. Concari
    • 3
  • F. I. I. Cosentino
    • 9
  • S. Fermi
    • 4
    • 14
  • R. Ferri
    • 9
  • G. Gelosa
    • 4
    • 14
  • G. Lombardi
    • 10
  • S. Mearelli
    • 11
  • F. Nobili
    • 5
  • S. Passero
    • 12
  • R. Perri
    • 13
  • R. Rocchi
    • 12
  • P. Sucapane
    • 11
  • G. Tognoni
    • 7
  • S. Zabberoni
    • 13
  • S. Sorbi
    • 10
  1. 1.Center of Sleep Medicine, Villa Serena HospitalPescaraItaly
  2. 2.Italian National Research Center (ITB-CNR)MilanItaly
  3. 3.Neuroscience DepartmentUniversity of ParmaParmaItaly
  4. 4.Neurology SectionS. Gerardo HospitalMonzaItaly
  5. 5.Clinical Neurology, Department of Neuroscience (DINOGMI)University of GenoaGenoaItaly
  6. 6.Department of NeurologyVilla Serena HospitalPescaraItaly
  7. 7.Neuroscience DepartmentUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  8. 8.Tor Vergata University, S. Lucia Foundation, IRCCSRomeItaly
  9. 9.Department of NeurologyOasi Institute IRCCSTroinaItaly
  10. 10.Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child Health (NEUROFARBA)University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly
  11. 11.Department of NeurologyUniversity of L’AquilaL’AquilaItaly
  12. 12.Neuroscience DepartmentUniversity of SienaSienaItaly
  13. 13.S. Lucia Foundation, IRCCSRomeItaly
  14. 14.DCMI, University of Milano-BicoccaMilanItaly

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