Neurological Sciences

, Volume 35, Issue 9, pp 1471–1473 | Cite as

Perihaematomal cytokine expression is a crucial component of intracerebral haemorrhage pathophysiology

  • Apostolos Zarros
  • Alexios Bimpis
  • Apostolos Papalois
  • George S. Baillie
Letter to the Editor

Dear Editor,

The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a central molecular event in the pathophysiology of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). The recent report by Zhang et al. [1] has provided us with a detailed account of the time-dependent expression patterns of major (NF-κB-activated), pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta; TNF-α and IL-1β, respectively) in clinical samples obtained from basal ganglia ICH patients and appropriately selected controls. The immunohistochemical analysis of the perihaematomal regions (PHRs; also known as “perihaematomal penumbra”) of these patients has reconfirmed the central role of NF-κB in triggering the so-called “secondary damage” of ICH, which seems to correlate well with the occurring cell death [1].

Despite the fact that important aspects of the ICH-related pathophysiology have been recognized [ 2, 3], the nature, the time-dependent order, and the extent of the neuroinflammatory events taking place...


Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Neuronal Loss Intracerebral Haemorrhage Cytokine Expression Vasogenic Oedema 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust [096978/Z/11/Z].

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Apostolos Zarros
    • 1
  • Alexios Bimpis
    • 2
  • Apostolos Papalois
    • 3
  • George S. Baillie
    • 1
  1. 1.Gardiner Laboratory, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life SciencesUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowScotland, UK
  2. 2.St. Mary’s HospitalImperial College Healthcare NHS TrustLondonEngland, UK
  3. 3.Experimental-Research Center ELPENAthensGreece

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