Quality of life in patients with craniocervical dystonia: Italian validation of the “Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58)” and the “Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24)”
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Dystonia is a disabling and disfiguring disorder that can often affect many aspects of patients’ daily lives, and lower their self-esteem. To date, quality of life (QoL) has been assessed in dystonic patients using generic measures that do not address the specific problems of this diagnostic group. Recently, two disease-specific scales “The Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58)” and the “Craniocervical Dystonia Questionnaire (CDQ-24)” were validated for measuring QoL in craniocervical dystonia patients. No disease-specific scales for QoL for dystonic patients are currently available in Italian. The aim of our study was to produce and validate the Italian version of the CDIP-58 and CDQ-24. We obtained the Italian version of CDQ-24 and CDIP-58 with a back-translation design. Both scales were applied to a population of 94 craniocervical dystonia patients along with the Short Form 36 health-survey questionnaire (SF-36), both before and 4 weeks after botulinum toxin therapy. A group of 65 controls matched for sex, age and comorbidity underwent the SF-36. Internal consistency was satisfactory for all subscales. Both the CDIP-58 and CDQ-24 showed moderate to high correlations with similar items of the SF-36. Sensitivity to change was confirmed by highly significant improvements in all CDQ-24 subscales and by moderate improvements in three out of eight CDIP-58 subscales and total score. This is the first Italian study on QoL in dystonia patients. We validated the Italian version of two disease-specific questionnaires to evaluate QoL in craniocervical dystonia patients. These scales could be useful for both clinical practice and clinical trials.