Neurological Sciences

, Volume 35, Issue 6, pp 905–910 | Cite as

Head and facial injuries due to cluster munitions

  • Youssef FaresEmail author
  • Jawad Fares
  • Souheil Gebeily
Original Article


Cluster munitions are weapons that scatter smaller sub-munitions intended to kill or mutilate on impact. They have been used by the Israeli army in the south of Lebanon and are now scattered over wide rural areas affecting its inhabitants. Because of their easily “pickable” nature, sub-munitions can inflict injuries to the head and face regions. In this study, we aimed to explore the head and face injuries along with their clinical features in a group of Lebanese patients who suffered from such injuries due to a sub-munition’s detonation. The study included all the cases reported between 14 August 2006 and 15 February 2013, with head and face injuries related to cluster bombs. Injuries were classified into brain, eye, otologic and auditory impairments, oral and maxillofacial, and skin and soft-tissue injuries. Psychological effects of these patients were also examined as for post-traumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and acute stress syndrome. During the study period, there were 417 casualties as a result of cluster munitions’ blasts. Out of the total number of victims, 29 (7 %) were injured in the head and the face region. The convention on cluster munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these inhumane weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm innocent civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict and war today.


Cluster munitions Cluster bombs Head injuries Face injuries Psychological effects Lebanon 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurosurgery Division, Faculty of Medical SciencesLebanese UniversityBeirutLebanon
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon
  3. 3.Neurology Division, Faculty of Medical SciencesLebanese UniversityBeirutLebanon

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