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Neurological Sciences

, Volume 35, Issue 5, pp 715–722 | Cite as

Effectiveness of papaverine cisternal irrigation for cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and measurement of biomarkers

  • Jae Hoon Kim
  • Hyeong-Joong YiEmail author
  • Yong Ko
  • Young-Soo Kim
  • Dong-Won Kim
  • Jae-Min Kim
Original Article

Abstract

Cisternal irrigation with thrombolytic agents was used to prevent post-SAH vasospasm, but its role remained inconclusive. To verify effectiveness of papaverine (PPV) in preventing vasospasm, we studied relationship between inflammatory biologic markers and vasospasm. This prospective study included 121 patients with clipped anterior circulation aneurysms that had ruptured, and 372 control patients. Patients were divided into three groups according to cisternal irrigation method: simple drain, papaverine group, and urokinase (UK) group. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) were determined in CSF and serum on days 3 and 7 after SAH. The PPV group showed similar incidence of vasospasm with UK group, but lower incidence than the simple drain group. The levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were significantly higher in the SAH group than in the control group. CSF and serum levels were more elevated on day 7 than day 3, and the degree of elevation were more marked when measured in the CSF than in the serum. However, there was no statistical difference between measured levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and vasospasm development. PPV cisternal irrigation was similarly effective as UK at preventing vasospasm. Although neither PPV nor UK irrigation could reduce the concentration of adhesion molecules compared with simple drain, we found levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were specifically elevated in the CSF. Therefore, further research should focus on anti-inflammation as a therapeutic target against cerebral vasospasm and on the CSF as the optimum place where such inflammatory action practically brought about.

Keywords

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1) Cisternal irrigation Papaverine Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage Vasospasm 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the research fund of Hanyang University (HY-2011-MC).

Conflict of interest

There are no conflicts of interests, no funding or any form of financial support.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jae Hoon Kim
    • 1
  • Hyeong-Joong Yi
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yong Ko
    • 2
  • Young-Soo Kim
    • 2
  • Dong-Won Kim
    • 3
  • Jae-Min Kim
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of NeurosurgeryEulji University HospitalSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryHanyang University Medical CenterSeoulKorea
  3. 3.Department of Anesthesiology and Pain MedicineHanyang University Medical CenterSeoulSouth Korea
  4. 4.Department of NeurosurgeryHanyang University Guri HospitalGuriKorea

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