Neurological Sciences

, Volume 33, Issue 5, pp 1071–1077 | Cite as

Do ACE (rs4646994) and αADDUCIN (rs4961) gene polymorphisms predict the recurrence of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage?

  • Usha K. Misra
  • Jayantee Kalita
  • Bindu I. Somarajan
  • Bishwanath Kumar
  • Moromi Das
  • Balraj Mittal
Original Article


This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of ACE and αADDUCIN polymorphisms in patients with recurrent and nonrecurrent hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A total of 101 nonrecurrent and 33 recurrent hypertensive ICH patients underwent an ACE (rs4646994) and αADDUCIN (rs4961) gene polymorphism study. The risk factors, clinical findings, CT scan abnormalities and functional outcome of recurrent and nonrecurrent ICH were compared. ACE (rs4646994) and αADDUCIN (rs4961) gene polymorphisms were also compared in the two groups and with 198 controls. The patients with recurrent ICH were older compared to those with nonrecurrent ICH and the other stroke risk factors were found in the two groups. Ganglionic–ganglionic pattern of recurrence was the commonest (75.6%) and all had at least one ICH in the location of hypertensive ICH. ACE DD genotype (OR6.18, 95%CI 2.93–13.02) and D allele (OR 2.43, 95%CI 1.70–3.47) were associated with nonrecurrent ICH compared to controls. In patients with recurrent ICH, DD genotype (OR 7.46, 95%CI 2.8–19.4) and D allele (OR 3.16, 95%CI 1.83–5.46) of ACE, and GW (OR 3.49, 95%CI 1.47–8.28), WW (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.40–4.30) genotypes and W allele (OR 7.46, 95%CI 2.80–19.40) of αADDUCIN were more frequent compared to controls. Recurrent ICH also had higher frequency of WW genotype (OR 9.43, 95%CI 1.49–59.50) and W allele (OR 2.19, 95%CI 1.11–4.03) compared to nonrecurrent ICH. The frequency of DD + WW (P = 0.008) and DD/WW + ID/GW (P = 0.0001) genotypes in the recurrent ICH was higher than in the nonrecurrent ICH and the controls. Variant genotype combinations of ACE and αADDUCIN render the hypertensive patient more vulnerable to recurrent ICH.


Hypertension ICH Recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage Gene polymorphism ACE αADDUCIN North India 



We thank the Indian Council of Medical Research for funding support.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Usha K. Misra
    • 1
  • Jayantee Kalita
    • 1
  • Bindu I. Somarajan
    • 1
  • Bishwanath Kumar
    • 1
  • Moromi Das
    • 1
  • Balraj Mittal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of NeurologySanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia
  2. 2.Department of Medical GeneticsSanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical SciencesLucknowIndia

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