Neurological Sciences

, Volume 32, Issue 1, pp 1–7 | Cite as

Role of glial cells in neurotoxin-induced animal models of Parkinson’s disease

  • Hironori Yokoyama
  • Hiroto Uchida
  • Hayato Kuroiwa
  • Jiro Kasahara
  • Tsutomu Araki
Review Article

Abstract

Dopaminergic neurons are selectively vulnerable to oxidative stress and inflammatory attack. The neuronal cell loss in the substantia nigra is associated with a glial response composed markedly of activated microglia and, to a lesser extent, of reactive astrocytes although these glial responses may be the source of neurotrophic factors and can protect against oxidative stress such as reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. However, the glial response can also mediate a variety of deleterious events related to the production of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant reactive species, prostaglandins, cytokines, and so on. In this review, we discuss the possible protective and deleterious effects of glial cells in the neurodegenerative diseases and examine how these factors may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. This review suggests that further investigation concerning glial reaction in Parkinson’s disease may lead to disease-modifying therapeutic approaches and may contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease.

Keywords

Parkinson’s disease Glia Oxidative stress Inflammation Cytokines Neurotrophic factors Neurodegeneration 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (22590935) from the Ministry of Science and Education in Japan.

Conflict of interest

All authors have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hironori Yokoyama
    • 1
  • Hiroto Uchida
    • 1
  • Hayato Kuroiwa
    • 1
  • Jiro Kasahara
    • 1
  • Tsutomu Araki
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurobiology and Therapeutics, Graduate School and Faculty of Pharmaceutical SciencesThe University of TokushimaTokushimaJapan

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