Neurological Sciences

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 35–40 | Cite as

Psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease assessed with the SCL-90R self-reported questionnaire

  • Chiara Siri
  • Roberto Cilia
  • Danilo De Gaspari
  • Federica Villa
  • Stefano Goldwurm
  • Catalano Marco
  • Gianni Pezzoli
  • Angelo Antonini
Original Article


The frequency of psychopathological symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is often underestimated because of the lack of comprehensive evaluation tools. A total of 486 consecutive non-demented PD patients completed the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90R) self-reported questionnaire, a validated tool for the assessment of psychopathological symptoms on nine dimensions. Somatization, depression, anxiety and obsessive–compulsive behaviors were reported by nearly half of the PD patients. They were more likely to occur in females. Disease-related factors such as duration, severity and daily dosages, but not type of dopaminergic medications, were associated with the occurrence of these symptoms. Psychopathological features are frequent in PD and their occurrence is underlined by disease-related factors.


Movement disorders Parkinson disease SCL-90R Psychiatric symptoms 


  1. 1.
    Lauterbach EC (2004) The neuropsychiatry of Parkinson’s disease and related disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 27(4):801–825CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nuti A, Ceravolo R, Piccinni A, Dell’Agnello G, Bellini G, Gambaccini G et al (2004) Psychiatric comorbidity in a population of Parkinson’s disease patients. Eur J Neurol 11(5):315–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cummings JL, Masterman DL (1999) Depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry 14:711–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Richard IH, Schiffer RB, Kurlan R (1996) Anxiety and Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 8(4):383–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maia AF, Pinto AS, Barbosa ER, Menezes PR, Miguel EC (2003) Obsessive–compulsive symptoms, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and related disorders in Parkinson’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 15(3):371–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alegret M, Junque C, Valldeoriola F, Vendrell P, Marti MJ, Tolosa E (2001) Obsessive–compulsive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 70(3):394–396CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muller N, Putz A, Kathmann N, Lehle R, Gunther W, Straube A (1997) Characteristics of obsessive–compulsive symptoms in Tourette’s syndrome, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and Parkinson’s disease. Psychiatry Res 70(2):105–114CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Voon V, Fox SH (2007) Medication-related impulse control and repetitive behaviours in Parkinson disease. Arch Neurol 64(8):1089–1096CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Potenza MN, Voon V, Weintraub D (2007) Drug insight: impulse control disorders and dopamine therapies in Parkinson’s disease. Nat Clin Pract Neurol 3(12):664–672CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Isaias IU, Siri C, Cilia R, De Gaspari D, Pezzoli G, Antonini A (2008) The relationship between impulsivity and impulse control disorders in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 23(3):411–415CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Aarsland D, Brønnick K, Ehrt U, De Deyn PP, Tekin S, Emre M et al (2007) Neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with Parkinson’s disease and dementia: frequency, profile and associated caregiver stress. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 78(1):36–42CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koh KB, Kim DK, Kim SY, Park JK, Han M (2008) The relation between anger management style, mood and somatic symptoms in anxiety disorders and somatoform disorders. Psychiatry Res 160(3):372–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Martinotti G, Mandelli L, Di Nicola M, Serretti A, Fossati A, Borroni S, Cloninger CR, Janiri L (2008) Psychometric characteristic of the Italian version of the temperament and character inventory—revised, personality, psychopathology, and attachment styles. Compr Psychiatry 49(5):514–522CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldwurm S, Zini M, Di Fonzo A, De Gaspari D, Siri C, Simons EJ et al (2006) LRRK2 G2019S mutation and Parkinson’s disease: a clinical, neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric study in a large Italian sample. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 12(7):410–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hughes AJ, Ben-Shlomo Y, Daniel SE, Lees AJ (1992) What features improve the accuracy of clinical diagnosis in Parkinson’s disease: a clinicopathologic study. Neurology 42:1142–1146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grosset KA, Grosset DG (2006) Proposed dose equivalence for rapid switching between dopamine agonists in Parkinson’s disease. Clin Ther 28:1063–1064CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Derogatis LR (1977) SCL-90-R: administration, scoring and procedures manual. Clinical Psychometrics Research, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pedersen G, Karterud S (2004) Is SCL-90R helpful for the clinician in assessing DSM-IV symptom disorders? Acta Psychiatr Scand 110(3):215–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aben I, Denollet J, Lousberg R, Verhey F, Wojciechowski F, Honig A (2002) Personality and vulnerability to depression in stroke patients: a 1-year prospective follow-up study. Stroke 33(10):2391–2395CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davies FG, Manchanda R, Schaefer B, Blume WT, McLachlan RS (1992) Sexual abuse and psychiatric symptoms in an epileptic population. Seizure 1(4):263–267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Offenbaecher M, Glatzeder K, Ackenheil M (1998) Self-reported depression, familial history of depression and fibromyalgia (FM), and psychological distress in patients with FM. Z Rheumatol 57(Suppl 2):94–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Erbil P, Razavi D, Farvacques C, Bilge N, Paesmans M, Van Houtte P (1996) Cancer patients’ psychological adjustment and perception of illness: cultural differences between Belgium and Turkey. Support Care Cancer 4(6):455–461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alonso J, Angermeyer MC, Bernert S, Bruffaerts R, Brugha TS, Bryson H et al (2004) ESEMeD/MHEDEA 2000. Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European study of the epidemiology of mental disorders (ESEMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Suppl 420:21–27Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koerts J, Leenders KL, Koning M, Portman AT, van Beilen M (2007) Striatal dopaminergic activity (FDOPA-PET) associated with cognitive items of a depression scale (MADRS) in Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurosci 25(10):3132–3136CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Koerts J, Leenders KL, Koning M, Bouma A, van Beilen M (2008) The assessment of depression in Parkinson’s disease. Eur J Neurol 15(5):487–492 Epub 2008 Mar 18CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stein DJ, Muller J (2008) Cognitive–affective neuroscience of somatization disorder and functional somatic syndromes: reconceptualizing the triad of depression–anxiety–somatic symptoms. CNS Spectr 13(5):379–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Owen AM, James M, Leigh PN, Summers BA, Marsden CD, Quinn NP et al (1997) Fronto-striatal cognitive deficits at different stages of Parkinson’s disease. Brain 115:1727–1751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dirnberger G, Frith CD, Jahanshahi M (2005) Executive dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease is associated with altered pallidal-frontal processing. Neuroimage 25(2):588–599CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Eidelberg D, Moeller JR, Antonini A, Kazumata K, Dhawan V, Budman C et al (1997) The metabolic anatomy of Tourette’s syndrome. Neurology 48:927–934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wolters ECh (2006) PD-related psychosis: pathophysiology with therapeutical strategies. In: Parvez H, Riederer P (eds) Oxidative stress and neuroprotection. J Neural Transm Suppl. Springer, Wien New York, vol 71, pp 31–37Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiara Siri
    • 1
  • Roberto Cilia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Danilo De Gaspari
    • 1
  • Federica Villa
    • 3
  • Stefano Goldwurm
    • 1
  • Catalano Marco
    • 4
  • Gianni Pezzoli
    • 1
  • Angelo Antonini
    • 1
  1. 1.Parkinson InstituteIstituti Clinici di PerfezionamentoMilanItaly
  2. 2.Department of Neurosciences, S. Gerardo HospitalUniversity of Milano-BicoccaMonzaItaly
  3. 3.I.R.C.C.S. “E. Medea”Associazione “la Nostra Famiglia” Bosisio PariniLeccoItaly
  4. 4.IRCCS H San RaffaeleUniversità Vita e SaluteMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations