Autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation has been evaluated over the last years as a possible new therapeutic strategy in severe forms of multiple sclerosis unresponsive to the approved therapies. Up to now, more than 400 patients have been treated and numerous are the phase I and phase II studies which addressed the feasibility of this treatment, the efficacy, side effects and transplant-related mortality. The clinical response is strongly related to the intensity of the conditioning regimen utilized as well as to the phase of the disease course in which the therapy is carried out. Rapidly evolving multiple sclerosis with a relapsing–remitting clinical course and MRI signs of activity are the cases that can take more advantage. The risk of mortality, which dropped in the last years to 2–3%, is still the main problem of this powerful therapy.
Multiple sclerosis Autologous stem-cell transplantation Malignant forms of multiple sclerosis Intense immunosuppression in multiple sclerosis
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Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest related to the publication of this article.
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