Neurological Sciences

, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 361–364 | Cite as

Blood levels of homocysteine, cysteine, glutathione, folic acid, and vitamin B12 in the acute phase of atherothrombotic stroke

  • Giuseppe Salemi
  • M. C. Gueli
  • M. D’Amelio
  • V. Saia
  • P. Mangiapane
  • P. Aridon
  • P. Ragonese
  • I. Lupo
Brief Communication

Abstract

Blood levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), cysteine (Cys), total and reduced glutathione (tGSH and rGSH), folic acid (FA), and vitamin B12 (B12) change during ischemic stroke as accompaniment of the tissue damage. The relationship between these changes remains scantly investigated. We evaluated the variation of these molecules in the 48 h after acute large artery atherothrombotic stroke (LAAS) and searched for the presence of matched variation of them. The study involved 50 subjects affected by acute LAAS and 49 healthy controls. Plasma levels of tHcy and Cys were significantly higher and serum levels of FA and B12 and plasma levels of rGSH were significantly lower in the patients than in the control group. Acute LAAS was associated with increased Hcy—decreased tGSH and decreased FA/tGSH. Pathways involved in cellular stress and in tissue repair are activated during acute LAAS.

Keywords

Large artery atherothrombotic stroke Homocysteine Cysteine Folic acid Vitamin B12 Reduced glutathione 

References

  1. 1.
    Miller AL (2003) The methionine—homocysteine cycle and its effects on cognitive diseases. Altern Med Rev 8:7–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Virtanen JK, Voutilainen S, Happonen P et al (2005) Serum homocysteine, folate and risk of stroke: Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factors (KIHD) study. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 12:369–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lindgren A, Brattstrőm L, Norrving B, Hultberg B, Andersson A, Johansson BB (1995) Plasma homocysteine in the acute and convalescent phases after stroke. Stroke 26:795–800PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wong PT, Qu K, Chimon GN et al (2006) High plasma cyst(e)ine level may indicate poor clinical outcome in patients with acute stroke: possible involvement of hydrogen sulfide. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 65:109–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kocer A, Ince N, Canbulat EC, Sargin M (2004) Serum vitamin B12 and folic acid levels in acute cerebral atherothrombotic infarction. Tohoku J Exp Med 204:155–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Christen WG, Ajani UA, Glynn RJ, Hennekens CH (2000) Blood levels of homocysteine and increased risks of cardiovascular disease: causal or casual? Arch Intern Med 160:422–434PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    The Health Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) 2 Investigators (2006) Homocysteine lowering with folic acid and B vitamins in vascular disease. New Engl J Med 354:1567–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adams HP Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ, Biller J, Love BB, Gordon DL, Marsh EEIII (1993) Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. Stroke 24:35–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ, Anand SS, Lofthouse E, Staples N, Baker RI (2000) Association between high homocysteine and ischemic stroke due to large- and small-artery disease but not other etiologic subtypes of ischemic stroke. Stroke 31:1069–1075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Warlow CP (1988) Epidemiology of stroke. Stroke 352(Suppl III):1–4Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sheps SG, Dart RA (1998) New guidelines for prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of hypertension: Joint National Committee VI. Chest 113:263–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Richard JL, Sultan A, Daures JP, Vannerean D, Parer-Richard C (2002) Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate glucose abnormalities in obese patients based on ADA (1997) and WHO (1985) criteria. Diabet Med 19:292–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ubbink JB, Hayward VW, Bissbort S (1991) Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic assay for total homocysteine levels in human serum. J Chromatogr 565:441–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Norussis MJ (1994) SPSS Advanced Statistics 6.1. SPSS Inc., ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dudman NP (1999) An alternative view of homocysteine. Lancet 354:2072–2074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Austin RC, Lentz SR, Werstuck GH (2004) Role of hyperhomocysteinemia in endothelial dysfunction and atherothrombotic disease. Cell Death Differentiation 11:S56–S64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qu K, Chen CPLH, Halliwell B, Moore PK, Wong PTH (2006) Hydrogen sulfide is a mediator of cerebral ischaemic damage. Stroke 37:889–893PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Namba K, Takeda Y, Sunami K, Hirakawa M (2001) Temporal profiles of the levels of endogenous antioxidants after four-vessel occlusion in rats. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 13:131–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Warner DS, Sheng H, Batinić-Haberle I (2004) Oxidants, antioxidants and the ischemic brain. J Exp Biol 207:3221–3231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Giuseppe Salemi
    • 1
  • M. C. Gueli
    • 2
  • M. D’Amelio
    • 1
  • V. Saia
    • 1
  • P. Mangiapane
    • 1
  • P. Aridon
    • 1
  • P. Ragonese
    • 1
  • I. Lupo
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of Neurology, Department of Clinical NeuroscienceUniversity of PalermoPalermoItaly
  2. 2.Department of Biochemical SciencesUniversity of PalermoPalermoItaly

Personalised recommendations