Advertisement

Neurological Sciences

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 209–217 | Cite as

Twenty years after Spinnler and Tognoni: new instruments in the Italian neuropsychologist’s toolbox

  • Angelo BianchiEmail author
  • Mirko Dai Prà
Original Article

Abstract

The aim of this article is to review neuropsychological normative studies which — after Spinnler and Tognoni’s monograph of 1987 — were done on healthy Italian adult subjects, and which either wholly or partially used the Equivalent Scores (ES) methodology proposed by Capitani et al. The independent norms settled for the same tests have been compared in order to point out their agreement, measured by Cohen’s Kappa, which in most cases resulted either excellent or good (>0.7). Available tests have been classified and arranged to facilitate the most suitable choice for different clinical purposes. Moreover, a simple software program has been set up which adjusts and transforms raw scores into ES. As well as saving time and avoiding errors, this simple aid is likely to improve the quality and clarity of the communication of neuropsychological results.

Keywords

Neuropsychology Assessment Test Normative studies 

Sommario

Lo scopo di questo lavoro è di passare in rassegna gli studi che — dopo la monografia di Spinnler e Tognoni del 1987 — hanno proposto nuove tarature di test neuropsicologici su campioni di soggetti sani italiani. Sono stati inclusi sia gli studi che hanno utilizzato integralmente il metodo di standardizzazione basato sui punteggi equivalenti (PE), sia gli studi che — pur utilizzandolo altri metodi — tuttavia possono essere agevolmente ricondotti a tale metodo, mantenendo livelli di accettabilità psicometrica del tutto soddisfacenti. Sono stati confrontati i risultati degli studi che in modo indipendente hanno tarato lo stesso test, al fine di evidenziarne il grado di concordanza, che si è rivelato, nella maggior parte dei casi, buono o eccellente. Per tutti i test passati in rassegna è stato messo a punto un comodo programma di calcolo automatizzato dei PE. Ci auguriamo che l’adozione di tale ausilio possa contribuire al miglioramento della comunicazione dei risultati dei test neuropsicologici tra professionisti di varie discipline.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Spinnler H, Tognoni G (1987) Standardizzazione e taratura italiana di test neuropsicologici. Ital J Neurol Sci 8[Suppl]:1–120Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Capitani E (1997) Normative data and neuropsychological assessment. Common problems in clinical practice and research. Neuropsychol Rehab 7:295–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Capitani E, Laiacona M (1988) Aging and psychometric diagnosis of intellectual impairment: some considerations on test scores and their use. Dev Neuropsychol 4:325–330Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Capitani E, Laiacona M (1997) Composite neuropsychological batteries and demographic correction: standardization based on equivalent scores, with a review of published data. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 19:795–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Capitani E, Laiacona M (2008) L’approccio quantitativo alla diagnosi neuropsicologica di normalità/non normalità. In: Bianchi A (ed) L’esame neuropsicologico dell’adulto. Giunti-Organizzazioni Speciali, Florence, pp 72–83Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barigazzi R, Della Sala S, Laiacona M et al (1987) Esplorazione testistica della memoria di prosa. Ricerche di psicologia 1:49–80Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Orsini A, Grossi D, Capitani E et al (1987) Verbal and spatial immediate memory span: normative data from 1355 adults and 1112 children. It J Neurol Sci 8:539–548Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Allamanno N, Della Sala S, Laiacona M et al (1987) Problem solving ability in aging and dementia: normative data on a non-verbal test. It J Neurol Sci 8:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basso A, Capitani E, Laiacona M (1987) Raven’s coloured progressive matrices: normative values on 305 adult normal controls. Funct Neurol 2:189–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Capitani E, Della Sala S, Lucchelli F, Soave P, Spinnler H (1988) Perceptual attention in aging and dementia measured by Gottschaldt’s hidden figure test. J Geront Psych Sci 43:157–163Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Borrini G, Dall’Ora P, Della Sala S et al (1989) Autobiographical memory. Sensitivity to age and education of a standardized enquiry. Psych Med 19:215–224Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Capitani E, Laiacona M, Ciceri E e Gruppo italiano per lo studio neuropsicologico dell’invecchiamento (1991) Sex differences in spatial memory: a reanalysis of block tapping long-term memory according to the short-term memory level. It J Neurol Sci 12:461–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Della Sala S, Laiacona M, Spinnler H, Ubezio C (1992) A cancellation test: its reliability in assessing attentional deficit in Alzheimer’s disease. Psych Med 22:885–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Capitani E, Della Sala S, Logie RH, Spinnler H (1992). Recency, primacy and memory: reappraising and standardising the serial position curve. Cortex 28:315–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Brazzelli M, Della Sala S, Laiacona M (1993) Taratura della versione italiana del Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test: un test di valutazione ecologica della memoria. Boll Psic Appl 206:33–42Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Capitani E, Della Sala S, Laiacona M et al (1994) Standardizzazione ed uso clinico di un test di memoria di prosa. Boll Psic Appl 209:47–63Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Della Sala S, Laiacona M, Trivelli C, Spinnler H (1995) Poppelreuter-Ghent’s Overlapping Figures Test: its sensitivity to age, and its clinical use. Arch Clin Neuropsyc 10:511–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Papagno C, Cappa SF, Forelli A et al (1995) La comprensione non letterale del linguaggio: taratura di un test di comprensione di metafore e di espressioni idiomatiche. Arch Psic Neurol Psich 56:402–42Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pomati S, Farina E, Magni E et al (1996) Normative data for two neuropsychological tests sensitive to frontal dysfunction. It J Neurol Sci 17:201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Giovagnoli AR, Del Pesce M, Mascheroni S et al (1996) Trail Making Test: normative values from 287 normal adult controls. It J Neurol Sci 17:305–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Carlesimo GA, Caltagirone C, Gainotti G and the Group for the standardization of the Mental Detrioration Battery (1996) The Mental Deterioration Battery: normative data, diagnostic reliability and qualitative analyses of cognitive impairment. Eur Neurol 36:378–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mauri M, Carlesimo GA, Graceffa AM et al (1997) Standardizzazione di due nuovi test di memoria: apprendimento di liste di parole correlate e non correlate semanticamente. Arch Psic Neurol Psich 58:622–645Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Barbarotto R, Laiacona M, Frosio R et al (1998) A normative study on visual reaction times and two Stroop colour-word tests. It J Neurol Sci 19:161–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Laiacona M, Inzaghi MG, De Tanti A, Capitani E (2000) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl Sorting Test. Neurol Sci 21:279–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Caffarra P, Vezzadini G, Dieci F et al (2002) Rey-Osterrieth complex figure: normative values in an Italian population sample. Neurol Sci 22:443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Nichelli P, Leone M, Caronna A et al (2002) Taratura di un test di stime cognitive di impiego diagnostico in clinica: stime dei tempi e dei pesi (STEP). Nuova Rivista di Neurologia 12:37–42Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Caffarra P, Vezzadini G, Dieci F et al (2002) Una versione abbreviata del test di Stroop. Dati normativi nella popolazione italiana. Nuova Rivista di Neurologia 12:111–115Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rizzo S, Venneri A, Papagno C (2002) Famous faces recognition and naming test: a normative study. Neurol Sci 23:153–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carlesimo GA, Buccione I, Fadda L et al (2002) Standardizzazione di due test di memoria per uso clinico: Breve Racconto e Figura di Rey. Nuova Rivista di Neurologia 12:1–13Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Caffarra P, Vezzadini G, Zonato F et al (2003) A normative study of a shorter version of Raven’s progressive matrices 1938. Neurol Sci 24:336–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Caffarra P, Vezzadini G, Dieci F et al (2004) Modified Card Sorting Test: normative data. J Clin Exp Neuropsych 26:246–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bizzozero I, Lucchelli F, Prigione A et al (2004) “What do you remember about Chernobyl?” A new test of memory for mediamediated events. Neurol Sci 25:205–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bizzozero I, Ferrari F, Pozzoli S et al (2005) Who is Who: Italian norms for visual recognition and identification of celebrities. Neurol Sci 26:95–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Rosci C, Sacco D, Laiacona M, Capitani E (2005) Interpretation of a complex picture and its sensitivity to frontal damage: a reappraisal. Neurol Sci 25:322–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Appollonio I, Leone M, Isella V et al (2005) The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB): normative values in an Italian population sample. Neurol Sci 26:108–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bizzozero I, Lucchelli F, Pozzoli S (2007) “What do you know about Ho Chi Minh?” Italian norms of proper name comprehension. Neurol Sci 28:16–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bizzozero I, Lucchelli F, Saetti MC, Spinnler H (2007) “Whose face is this?” Italian norms of naming celebrities. Neurol Sci 28: 315–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Papagno C, Caporali A, Rizzo S et al (2007) La comprensione di espressioni idiomatiche non ambigue: taratura di un test di associazione frase-figura. Gior It Psic 34:965–987Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Anselmetti S, Poletti S, Ermoli E et al (2008) The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizofrenia (BACS). Normative data for the Italian population. Neurol Sci 29:85–92Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Measso G, Zappalà G, Cavarzeran F et al (1993) Raven’s coloured progressive matrices: a normative study of a random sample of healthy adults. Acta Neurol Scand 88:70–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Measso G, Cavarzeran F, Zappalà G et al (1993) The Mini-Mental State Examination: Normative study of an Italian random sample. Dev Neuropsyc 9:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brazzelli M, Capitani E, Della Sala S et al (1994) A neuropsychological instrument adding to the description of patients with suspected cortical dementia: the Milan overall dementia assessment. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 57:1510–1517Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zappalà G, Measso G, Cavarzeran F et al (1995) Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex end education for three widely used memory tests. It J Neurol Sci 16:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ghidoni E, Poletti M, Bondovalli M (1995) Standardizzazione italiana di un test per la memoria autobiografica. Arch Psic Neurol Psich 56:428–443Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Capitani E, Laiacona M, Basso A (1998) Phonetically cued word-fluency, gender differences and aging: a reappraisal. Cortex 34:779–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Caterini F, Della Sala S, Spinnler H et al (1998) Batteria testistica per lo studio della capacità di riconoscere identità ed orientamento di stimoli visivi: dati normativi e risultati in un campione di pazienti affetti da demenza di Alzheimer. Arch Psic Neurol Psich 59:278–313Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Della Sala S, Muggia S, Spinnler H, Zuffi M (1998) Un test di decisione fisionomica tarato su normali ed utilizzato nei dementi di Alzheimer. Arch Psic Neurol Psich 59:613–625Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Capitani E, Neppi-Modona M, Bisiach E (2000) Verbal-response and manual-response versions of the Milner landmark task: normative data. Cortex 36:593–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bizzozero I, Costato D, Della Sala S et al (2000) Upper and lower face apraxia: role of the right hemisphere. Brain 123:2213–2230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mariani C, Sacco L, Spinnler H, Venneri A (2002) General Knowledge of the World: a standardised assessment. Neurol Sci 23:161–175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Budriesi C, Zambolin AM, Bertolani L et al (2002) Un questionario italiano per eventi remoti: 1966–1997. Gior It Psic 29:827–846Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Barbarotto R, Laiacona M, Macchi V, Capitani E (2002) Picture reality decision, semantic categories and gender. a new set of pictures, with norms and an experimental study. Neuropsychologia 40:1637–1653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Della Sala S, MacPherson SE, Phillips LH et al (2003) How many camels are there in Italy? Cognitive estimates standardised on the Italian population. Neurol Sci 24:10–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Della Sala S, Spinnler H, Venneri A (2004) Walking difficulties in patients with Alzheimer’s disease might originate from gait apraxia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 75:196–201Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Iavarone A, Ronga B, Pellegrino L et al (2004) The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB): normative data from an Italian sample and performance of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Funct Neurol 19:191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nocentini U, Giordano A, Di Vincenzo S et al (2006) The Symbol Digit Modalities Test-Oral version: Italian normative data. Funct Neurol 21:93–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mondini S, Mapelli D, Vestri A, Bisiacchi PS (2003) Esame Neuropsicologico Breve. Raffaello Cortina Editore, Milan.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Heaton RK, Chelune GJ, Talley JL et al (2000) WCST: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Giunti-Organizzazioni Speciali, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bianchi A (ed) (2008) L’esame neuropsicologico dell’adulto. Giunti-Organizzazioni Speciali, FlorenceGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fleiss JL (1981) Statistical Methods for Rates and Proportions (2nd Edn) Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cossa FM, Della Sala S, Musicco M et al (1999) The Milan Overall Assessment and the Mini-Mental State Examination compared: an epidemiological investigation of dementia. Eur J Neurol 6:289–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cazzaniga R, Francescani A, Saetti C, Spinnler H (2003) How to calculate an MMSE score from a MODA score (and vice versa) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neurol Sci 24:261–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pippi M, Mecocci P, Saxton J et al (1999) Neuropsychological assessment of the severely impaired elderly patients: validation of the Italian short version of the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB) Aging Clin Exp Res 11:221–226Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pasqualetti P, Moffa F, Chiovenda P et al (2002) Mini-Mental State Examination and Mental Deterioration Battery: analysis of the relationship and clinical implications. J Am Ger Soc 50:1577–1581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Perri R, Serra R, Carlesimo GA, Caltagirone C and the Early Diagnosis Group of the Italian Interdisciplinary Network on Alzheimer’s Disease (2007) Preclinical Dementia: an Italian multicentre study on amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 23:289–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mental HealthArezzoItaly

Personalised recommendations