Neurological Sciences

, Volume 29, Supplement 2, pp 233–234

Cyclophosphamide-based combination therapies for autoimmunity

  • Paola Perini
  • Massimiliano Calabrese
  • Luciano Rinaldi
  • Paolo Gallo
Multiple Sclerosis: The Management of Non-Responders


Immunomodulatory agent (IMA)-unresponsive multiple sclerosis (MS) can quickly evolve to a dramatic and irreversible disability. Treating these patients with appropriate immunosuppressive therapies can be a chance to arrest disease activity and progression. Cyclophosphamide (Cyc)-based intense immunosuppression has been successfully used to treat rapidly deteriorating, IMA-refractory MS patients. Therapeutic protocols combining Cyc and interferon beta (IFNβ) have also been successfully applied to treat IFNβ-unresponsive MS. The association of Cyc with other immunomodulatory drugs or monoclonal antibodies is currently being investigated in clinical trials aimed at treating severe forms of autoimmune diseases.


Cyclophosphamide Combination therapy Multiple sclerosis Autoimmunity 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paola Perini
    • 1
  • Massimiliano Calabrese
    • 1
  • Luciano Rinaldi
    • 1
  • Paolo Gallo
    • 1
  1. 1.Multiple Sclerosis Centre-Veneto Region, Department of NeuroscienceUniversity HospitalPadovaItaly

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