Neurological Sciences

, Volume 28, Supplement 2, pp S70–S77 | Cite as

What does the evidence show? Efficacy of behavioural treatments for recurrent headaches in adults

  • F. AndrasikEmail author


Behavioural treatments (predominantly biofeedback, relaxation and cognitive-behavioural) have been utilised in headache management for nearly 4 decades. This paper examines their clinical efficacy, drawing upon 2 primary sources of evidence: meta-analytic and evidenced-based reviews. Behavioural treatments have demonstrated efficacy and have been endorsed by various reviewing groups, such as the US Headache Consortium. Outcomes from behavioural treatments appear to endure over longer-term follow-up intervals as well. Meta-analyses comparing behavioural and pharmacological treatments have revealed similar levels of outcome. The article closes with a brief discussion of methods investigators are exploring to make behavioural treatments more available and affordable to headache patients.

Key words

Migraine Tension-type headache Behavioural treatment Biofeedback Efficacy 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of West FloridaPensacolaUSA

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