Animal Cognition

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 141–145 | Cite as

Structural analysis of tool-use by tufted capuchins (Cebus apella) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

  • G. C. Westergaard
Original Article


Using Matsuzawa’s hierarchical system of classification, I compared tool-use patterns of tufted capuchins (Cebusapella) to those of chimpanzees (Pantroglodytes). The results indicated that wild C. apella exhibit fewer and less complex tool-use patterns than do captive C. apella and wild and captive P. troglodytes. Although most patterns of tool-use observed among P. troglodytes occur in captive C. apella, there are some notable exceptions, including tool-use in communicative contexts and the use ¶of three-tool combinations. I conclude that C. apella are unique among monkeys in their demonstrated propensities for higher-order combinatorial behavior and are likely capable of using symbolic combinations, although not at the level of complexity that has been demonstrated in ¶P. troglodytes.

Key wordsCebus Monkey Pan Tool-use 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. C. Westergaard
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Research, LABS of Virginia, 95 Castle Hall Road, P.O. Box 557, Yemassee, S-C 29902, USA e-mail:, Tel.: +1-843-589 5190, Fax: +1-843-589 5290US

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