Advertisement

Animal Cognition

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 707–732 | Cite as

Animal timing: a synthetic approach

  • Marilia Pinheiro de Carvalho
  • Armando Machado
  • Marco Vasconcelos
Review

Abstract

Inspired by Spence’s seminal work on transposition, we propose a synthetic approach to understanding the temporal control of operant behavior. The approach takes as primitives the temporal generalization gradients obtained in prototypical concurrent and retrospective timing tasks and then combines them to synthetize more complex temporal performances. The approach is instantiated by the learning-to-time (LeT) model. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part, we review the basic findings concerning the generalization gradients observed in fixed-interval schedules, the peak procedure, and the temporal generalization procedure and then describe how LeT explains them. In the second part, we use LeT to derive by gradient combination the typical performances observed in mixed fixed-interval schedules, the free-operant psychophysical procedure, the temporal bisection task, and the double temporal bisection task. We also show how the model plays the role of a useful null hypothesis to examine whether temporal control in the bisection task is relative or absolute. In the third part, we identify a set of issues that must be solved to advance our understanding of temporal control, including the shape of the generalization gradients outside the range of trained stimulus durations, the nature of temporal memories, the influence of context on temporal learning, whether temporal control can be inhibitory, and whether temporal control is also relational. These issues attest to the heuristic value of a Spencean approach to temporal control.

Keywords

Timing Temporal generalization gradients Learning-to-time (LeT) model Spencean approach 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors MPC, AM, and MV were supported by grants SFRH/BD/73875/2010, PTDC/MHC-PCN/3540/2012, and IF/01624/2013/CP1158/CT0012, respectively, from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology. This study was conducted at the Psychology Research Centre, University of Minho, and partially supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and the Portuguese Ministry of Education and Science through national funds and when applicable co-financed by FEDER under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement (UID/PSI/01662/2013).

Supplementary material

10071_2016_977_MOESM1_ESM.docx (38 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 38 kb)

References

  1. Arantes J, Machado A (2008) Context effects in a temporal discrimination task: further tests of the scalar expectancy theory and learning-to-time models. J Exp Anal Behav 90:33–51PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balci F, Gallistel CR, Allen BD, Frank KM, Gibson JM, Brunner D (2009) Acquisition of peak responding: what is learned? Behav Process 80:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bizo LA, White KG (1995) Biasing the pacemaker in the behavioral theory of timing. J Exp Anal Behav 64:225–235PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown BL, Höhn S, Faure A, von Hörsten S, LeBlanc P, Desvignes N, Doyère V (2011) Temporal sensitivity changes with extended training in a bisection task in a transgenic rat model. Front Integr Neurosci 5:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bush R, Mosteller F (1955) Stochastic models of learning. Wiley, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cabeza de Vaca S, Brown BL, Hemmes NS (1994) Internal clock and memory processes in animal timing. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 20:184–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carroll CA, Boggs J, O’Donnell BF, Shekhar A, Hetrick WP (2008) Temporal processing dysfunction in schizophrenia. Brain Cogn 67:150–161PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carvalho MP, Machado A (2012) Relative versus absolute stimulus control in the temporal bisection task. J Exp Anal Behav 98:23–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carvalho MP, Machado A, Tonneau F (2016) Learning in the temporal bisection task: relative or absolute? J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn 42:67–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caselli L, Iaboli L, Nichelli P (2009) Time estimation in mild Alzheimer’s disease patients. Behav Brain Funct 5. Retrieved from http://www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com/content/pdf/1744-9081-5-32.pdf
  11. Catania AC (1970) Reinforcement schedules and the psychophysical judgments: a study of some temporal properties of behavior. In: Schoenfeld WN (ed) The theory of reinforcement schedules. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp 1–42Google Scholar
  12. Catania AC, Reynolds GS (1968) A quantitative analysis of the responding maintained by interval schedules of reinforcement. J Exp Anal Behav 11:327–383PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng K (1989) The vector sum model of pigeon landmark use. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 15:366–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng K (1990) More psychophysics of the pigeon’s use of landmarks. J Comp Physiol A 166:857–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheng K (1992) Three psychophysical principles in the processing of spatial and temporal information. In: Honig WK, Fetterman JG (eds) Cognitive aspects of stimulus control. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, pp 69–88Google Scholar
  16. Cheng K, Westwood R, Crystal JD (1993) Memory variance in the peak procedure of timing in pigeons. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 19:68–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheng K, Spetch M, Johnston M (1997) Spatial peak shift and generalization in pigeons. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 23:469–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheng K, Spetch M, Kelly D, Bingman V (2006) Small-scale spatial cognition in pigeons. Behav Process 72:115–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Church RM (2003) A concise introduction to scalar timing theory. In: Meck W (ed) Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 3–22Google Scholar
  20. Church RM (2004) Temporal learning. In: Pashler H, Gallistel CR (eds) Stevens’ handbook of experimental psychology, vol. 3: learning, motivation, and emotion, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 365–393Google Scholar
  21. Church RM, Deluty MZ (1977) Bisection of temporal intervals. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 3:216–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Church RM, Gibbon J (1982) Temporal generalization. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 8:165–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Church RM, Meck WH, Gibbon J (1994) Application of scalar timing theory to individual trials. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 20:135–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Collett TS, Cartwright BA, Smith BA (1986) Landmark learning and visuo-spatial memories in gerbils. J Comp Physiol A 158:835–851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cook RG, Rosen HA (2010) Temporal control of internal states in pigeons. Psychon Bull Rev 17:915–922PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Crystal JD, Baramidze GT (2006) Endogenous oscillations in short-interval timing. Behav Process 74:152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dews PB (1970) The theory of fixed-interval responding. In: Schoenfeld WN (ed) The theory of reinforcement schedules. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, pp 43–61Google Scholar
  28. Dews PB (1978) Studies on responding under fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement II. The scalloped pattern of the cumulative record. J Exp Anal Behav 29:67–75PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Elsmore TF (1971) Control of responding by stimulus duration. J Exp Anal Behav 16:81–87PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ferster CB, Skinner BF (1957) Schedules of reinforcement. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gallistel CR (1990) The organization of learning. Bradford Books/MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  32. Gallistel CR (2007) Flawed foundations of associationism? Comment on Machado and Silva (2007). Am Psychol 62:682–685PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gallistel CR, King A, McDonald R (2004) Sources of variability and systematic error in mouse timing behavior. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 30:3–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ghirlanda S, Enquist M (2003) A century of generalization. Anim Behav 66:15–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gibbon J (1977) Scalar expectancy theory and Weber’s law in animal timing. Psychol Rev 84:279–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gibbon J (1991) Origins of scalar timing theory. Learn Motiv 22:3–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gibbon J, Church R (1992) Comparison of variance and covariance patterns in parallel and serial theories of timing. J Exp Anal Behav 57:393–406PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gibbon J, Church R, Meck W (1984) Scalar timing in memory. In: Allan L, Gibbon J (eds) Timing and time perception. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp 52–77Google Scholar
  39. Guilhardi P, Church RM (2004) Measures of temporal discrimination in fixed-interval performance: a case study in archiving data. Behav Res Methods Instrum Comput 36:661–669PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guilhardi P, MacInnis MLM, Church RM, Machado A (2007) Shifts in the psychophysical function in rats. Behavioral Processes 75:167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Guttman N, Kalish H (1956) Discriminability and stimulus generalization. J Exp Psychol 51:79–88PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Honig WK, Boneau CA, Berstein KR, Pennypacker HS (1963) Positive and negative generalization gradients obtained under equivalent training conditions. J Comp Physiol Psychol 56:111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hulse SH, Kline CL (1993) The perception of time relations in auditory tempo discrimination. Anim Learn Behav 21:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jenkins HM, Harrison RH (1960) Effect of discrimination training on auditory generalization. J Exp Psychol 59:246–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kaiser DH (2008) The proportion of fixed interval trials to probe trials affects acquisition of the peak procedure fixed interval timing task. Behav Process 77:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kaiser DH, Zentall T, Neiman E (2002) Timing in pigeons: effects of the similarity between intertrial interval and gap in a timing signal. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 28:416–422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Killeen PR (1999) Modeling modeling. J Exp Anal Behav 71:275–280PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Killeen PR, Fetterman JG (1988) A behavioral theory of timing. Psychol Rev 95:274–285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Killeen PR, Fetterman JG (1993) The behavioral theory of timing: transition analyses. J Exp Anal Behav 59:411–422PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kirkpatrick-Steger K, Miller S, Betti C, Wasserman E (1996) Cyclic responding by pigeons on the peak timing procedure. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 22:447–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Köhler W (1938) Simple structural functions in the chimpanzee and in the children. In: Ellis WD (ed) A source book of gestalt psychology. Routledge & Kegan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  52. Laude J, Stagner J, Rayburn-Reeves R, Zentall T (2014) Midsession reversals with pigeons: visual versus spatial discriminations and the intertrial interval. Learn Behav 42:40–46PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Leak T, Gibbon J (1995) Simultaneous timing of multiple intervals: implications of the scalar property. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 21:3–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lejeune H, Wearden JH (1991) The comparative psychology of fixed-interval responding: some quantitative analyses. Learn Motiv 22:84–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Lejeune H, Wearden JH (2006) Scalar properties in animal timing: conformity and violations. Q J Exp Psychol 59:1875–1908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lejeune H, Richelle M, Wearden JH (2006) About Skinner and time: behavior-analytic contributions to research on animal timing. J Exp Anal Behav 85:125–142PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lima J (2010) Invariância da escala temporal com programas de intervalos fixos misturados. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Minho, Braga, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  58. Lowe CF, Harzem P (1977) Species differences in temporal control of behavior. J Exp Anal Behav 28:189–201PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lowe CF, Harzem P, Spencer P (1979) Temporal control of behavior and the power law. J Exp Anal Behav 31:333–343PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. MacDonald C, Cheng RK, Meck WH (2012) Interval timing and time-based decision making requires differential protein synthesis in the dorsal and ventral striatum for the setting of ‘Start’ and ‘Stop’ response thresholds. Front Integr Neurosci 6:10. doi: 10.3389/fnint.2012.00010 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Machado A (1997) Learning the temporal dynamics of behavior. Psychol Rev 104:241–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Machado A, Arantes J (2006) Comparison of scalar expectancy theory (SET) and the learning-to-time (LeT) model in a successive temporal bisection task. Behav Process 72:195–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Machado A, Cevik M (1998) Acquisition and extinction under periodic reinforcement. Behav Process 44:237–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Machado A, Guilhardi P (2000) Shifts in the psychometric function and their implications for models of timing. J Exp Anal Behav 74:25–54PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Machado A, Keen R (1999) Learning to time (LeT) or scalar expectancy theory (SET)? A critical test of two models of timing. Psychol Sci 10:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Machado A, Keen R (2003) Temporal discrimination in a long operant chamber. Behav Process 62:157–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Machado A, Oliveira L (2009) Dupla bissecção temporal: testes críticos de dois modelos de timing. Acta Comport 17:25–60Google Scholar
  68. Machado A, Pata P (2005) Testing the scalar expectancy theory (SET) and the learning-to-time model (LeT) in a double bisection task. Learn Behav 33:111–122PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Machado A, Silva F (2007a) Toward a richer view of the scientific method: the role of conceptual analysis. Am Psychol 62:671–681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Machado A, Silva F (2007b) On the clarification of concepts: a reply to Gallistel (2007) and Lau (2007). Am Psychol 62:689–691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Machado A, Malheiro MT, Erlhagen W (2009) Learning to time: a perspective. J Exp Anal Behav 92:423–458PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Maia S, Machado A (2009) Representation of time intervals in a double bisection task: relative or absolute? Behav Process 81:280–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Matell MS, Henning AM (2013) Temporal memory averaging and post-encoding alterations in temporal expectation. Behav Process 95:31–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Matell MS, Kurti AN (2014) Reinforcement probability modulates temporal memory selection and integration processes. Acta Psychol 147:80–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McMillan N, Roberts WA (2012) Pigeons make errors as a result of interval timing in a visual, but not visual-spatial, midsession reversal task. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 38:440–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McMillan N, Roberts W (2015) A three-stimulus midsession reversal task in pigeons with visual and spatial discriminative stimuli. Anim Cogn 18:373–383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McMillan N, Kirk CR, Roberts WA (2014) Pigeon (Columba livia) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) performance in the midsession reversal procedure depends upon cue dimensionality. J Comp Psychol 128:357–366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Meck WH (1983) Selective adjustment of the speed of internal clock and memory processes. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 9:171–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Meck WH, Church RM (1984) Simultaneous temporal processing. J Exp Psycol Anim Behav Process 10:1–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Merchant H, Luciana M, Hooper C, Majestic S, Tuite P (2008) Interval timing and Parkinson´s disease: heterogeneity in temporal performance. Exp Brain Res 184:233–248PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Molet M, Zentall TR (2008) Relative judgments affect assessments of stimulus duration. Psychon Bull Rev 15:431–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Monteiro T, Machado A (2009) Oscillations following periodic reinforcement. Behav Process 81:170–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Odum AL, Lieving LM, Schaal DW (2002) Effects of d-amphetamine in a temporal discrimination procedure: selective changes in timing or rate dependency? J Exp Anal Behav 78:195–214PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Oliveira L, Machado A (2008) The effect of sample duration and cue on a double temporal discrimination. Learn Motiv 39:71–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Oliveira L, Machado A (2009) Context effect in a temporal bisection task with the choice keys available during the sample. Behav Process 81:286–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pinto C, Machado A (2011) Short-term memory for temporal intervals: contrasting explanations of the choose-short effect in pigeons. Learn Motiv 42:13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pinto C, Machado A (2015) Coding in pigeons: multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies. J Exp Anal Behav 103:472–483PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Platt JR (1979) Temporal differentiation and the psychophysics of time. In: Zeiler MD, Harzem P (eds) Reinforcement and the organization of behavior. Wiley, New York, pp 1–29Google Scholar
  89. Platt JR, Davis ER (1983) Bisection of temporal intervals by pigeons. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 9:160–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Rayburn-Reeves RM, Zentall TR (2013) Pigeons’ use of cues in a repeated five-trial-sequence, single-reversal task. Learn Behav 41:138–147PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rayburn-Reeves RM, Molet M, Zentall TR (2011) Simultaneous discrimination reversal learning in pigeons and humans: anticipatory and perseverative errors. Learn Behav 39:125–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Rayburn-Reeves RM, Laude JR, Zentall TR (2013) Pigeons show near-optimal win-stay/lose-shift performance on a simultaneous-discrimination, midsession reversal task with short intertrial intervals. Behav Process 92:65–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Reynolds GS, Catania AC (1962) Temporal discrimination in pigeons. Science 135:314–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Richelle M, Lejeune H (1980) Time in animal behavior. Pergamon, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  95. Roberts S (1981) Isolation of an internal clock. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 7:242–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Roberts S (1998) The mental representation of time: Uncovering a biological clock. In: Scarborough D, Sternberg S (eds) An invitation to cognitive science: methods, models, and conceptual issues, vol 4, 2nd edn. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 53–106Google Scholar
  97. Roberts WA, Cheng K, Cohen JS (1989) Timing light and tone signals in pigeons. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 15:23–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Russell R, Kirkpatrick K (2007) The role of temporal generalization in a temporal discrimination task. Behav Process 74:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sanabria F, Killeen P (2007) Temporal generalization accounts for response resurgence in the peak procedure. Behav Process 74:126–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schneider BA (1969) A two-state analysis of fixed-interval responding in the pigeon. J Exp Anal Behav 12:677–687PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Siegel SF (1986) A test of the similarity rule model of temporal bisection. Learn Motiv 17:59–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Singer R, Klein E, Zentall T (2006) Use of a single-code/default strategy by pigeons to acquire duration sample discriminations. Learn Motiv 34:340–347Google Scholar
  103. Skinner BF (1938) The behavior of organisms: an experimental analysis. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. Spence KW (1936) The nature of discrimination learning in animals. Psychol Rev 43:427–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Spence KW (1937) The differential response in animals to stimuli varying within a single dimension. Psychol Rev 44:430–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Spence KW (1942) The basis of solution by chimpanzees of the intermediate size problem. J Exp Psychol 31:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Spetch ML, Cheng K (1998) A step function in pigeons’ temporal generalization in the peak shift task. Anim Learn Behav 26:103–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Staddon JER, Cerutti D (2003) Operant conditioning. Annu Rev Psychol 54:115–144PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Staddon JER, Higa J (1999) Time and memory: towards a pacemaker-free theory of interval timing. J Exp Anal Behav 71:215–251PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stagner JP, Michler DM, Rayburn-Reeves RM, Laude JR, Zentall TR (2013) Midsession reversal learning: why do pigeons anticipate and perseverate? Learn Behav 41:54–60PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Stubbs DA (1976) Response bias and the discrimination of stimulus duration. J Exp Anal Behav 25:243–250PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Swanton DN, Matell MS (2011) Stimulus compounding in interval timing: the modality-duration relationship of the anchor durations results in qualitatively different response patterns to the compound cue. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 37:94–107PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Swanton DN, Gooch CM, Matell MS (2009) Averaging of temporal memories by rats. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 35:434–439PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Switalski RW, Lyons J, Thomas DR (1966) Effects of interdimensional training on stimulus generalization. J Exp Psychol 72:661–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vieira de Castro AC, Machado A (2012) The interaction of temporal generalization gradients predicts the context effect. J Exp Anal Behav 97:263–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Vieira de Castro AC, Machado A, Tomanari GY (2013) The context effect as interaction of temporal generalization gradients: testing the fundamental assumptions of the learning-to-time model. Behav Process 95:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Vieira de Castro AC, Vasconcelos M, Machado A (2015) Temporal generalization gradients following an interdimensional discrimination training. Q J Exp Psychol 25:1–18Google Scholar
  118. Wearden JH, Edwards H, Fakhri M, Percival A (1998) Why “sounds are judged longer than lights”: application of a model of the internal clock in humans. Q J Exp Psychol 51:97–120Google Scholar
  119. Wearden JH, Norton R, Martin S, Montford-Bebb O (2007) Internal clock processes and the filled duration illusion. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 33:716–729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Whitaker JS, Lowe CF, Wearden J (2003) Multiple-interval timing in rats: performance on two valued mixed fixed-interval schedules. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 29:277–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Whitaker JS, Lowe CF, Wearden J (2008) When to respond? And how much? Temporal control and response output on mixed-fixed-interval schedules with unequally probable components. Behav Process 77:33–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wynne CDL, Staddon JER (1988) Typical delay determines waiting time on periodic-food schedules: static and dynamic tests. J Exp Anal Behav 50:197–210PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zeiler MD, Powell DG (1994) Temporal control in fixed-interval schedules. J Exp Anal Behav 61:1–9PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Zentall TR, Weaver JE, Clement TS (2004) Pigeons group time intervals according to their relative duration. Psychon Bull Rev 11:113–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marilia Pinheiro de Carvalho
    • 1
  • Armando Machado
    • 1
  • Marco Vasconcelos
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Animal Learning and Behavior Lab, School of PsychologyUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.Department of ZoologyUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations