Animal Cognition

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 19–37 | Cite as

Who would have thought that ‘Jaws’ also has brains? Cognitive functions in elasmobranchs

  • V. Schluessel


Adaptation of brain structures, function and higher cognitive abilities most likely have contributed significantly to the evolutionary success of elasmobranchs, but these traits remain poorly studied when compared to other vertebrates, specifically mammals. While the pallium of non-mammalian vertebrates lacks the mammalian neocortical organization responsible for all cognitive abilities of mammals, several behavioural and neuroanatomical studies in recent years have clearly demonstrated that elasmobranchs, just like teleosts and other non-mammalian vertebrates, can nonetheless solve a multitude of cognitive tasks. Sharks and rays can learn and habituate, possess spatial memory; can orient according to different orientation strategies, remember spatial and discrimination tasks for extended periods of time, use tools; can imitate and learn from others, distinguish between conspecifics and heterospecifics, discriminate between either visual objects or electrical fields; can categorize visual objects and perceive illusory contours as well as bilateral symmetry. At least some neural correlates seem to be located in the telencephalon, with some pallial regions matching potentially homologous areas in other vertebrates where similar functions are being processed. Results of these studies indicate that the assessed cognitive abilities in elasmobranchs are as well developed as in teleosts or other vertebrates, aiding them in fundamental activities such as food retrieval, predator avoidance, mate choice and habitat selection.


Learning Memory Shark Chondrichthyes Rays 



I am grateful to H. Bleckmann and M. Mogdans for helpful suggestions on the manuscript.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of ZoologyRheinische-Friedrich-Wilhelm Universität BonnBonnGermany

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