Advertisement

Animal Cognition

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 1107–1119 | Cite as

Seeing two faces together: preference formation in humans and rhesus macaques

  • David MéaryEmail author
  • Zhihan Li
  • Wu Li
  • Kun Guo
  • Olivier Pascalis
Original Paper

Abstract

Humans, great apes and old world monkeys show selective attention to faces depending on conspecificity, familiarity, and social status supporting the view that primates share similar face processing mechanisms. Although many studies have been done on face scanning strategy in monkeys and humans, the mechanisms influencing viewing preference have received little attention. To determine how face categories influence viewing preference in humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), we performed two eye-tracking experiments using a visual preference task whereby pairs of faces from different species were presented simultaneously. The results indicated that viewing time was significantly influenced by the pairing of the face categories. Humans showed a strong bias towards an own-race face in an Asian–Caucasian condition. Rhesus macaques directed more attention towards non-human primate faces when they were paired with human faces, regardless of the species. When rhesus faces were paired with faces from Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) or chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the novel species’ faces attracted more attention. These results indicate that monkeys’ viewing preferences, as assessed by a visual preference task, are modulated by several factors, species and dominance being the most influential.

Keywords

Humans Rhesus macaques Preferences Faces Eye-tracking 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank two anonymous reviewers for their fruitful comments on an early version of the manuscript. This research was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China Grant 31125014, Open Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning (China) and by a grant from the National Institutes of Health Grant R01 HD046526 (to O. P.).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical standard

In accordance with French standards for behavioral studies, the experiment was approved by the local ethics committee of the Psychology and NeuroCognition Lab (human participants). The animal experiments were conducted at Beijing Normal University, with all procedures in compliance with the US National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Beijing Normal University.

Supplementary material

10071_2014_742_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (8.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 8807 kb)

References

  1. Bornstein RF (1989) Exposure and affect: overview and meta-analysis of research. Psychol Bull 106:265–289. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.106.2.265 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bruce V, Young AW (1998) In the eye of the beholder: the science of face perception. Oxford University Press, Oxford, ISBN: 0198524404Google Scholar
  3. Dahl CD, Logothetis NK, Hoffman KL (2007) Individuation and holistic processing of faces in rhesus monkeys. Proc R Soc Lond B 274:2069–2076. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2007.0477 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dahl CD, Wallraven C, Bulthoff HH, Logothetis NK (2009) Humans and macaques employ similar face-processing strategies. Curr Biol 19:1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.01.061.E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deaner RO, Khera AV Platt ML (2005) Monkeys pay per view: adaptive valuation of social images by rhesus macaques. Curr Biol 15: 543–548, ISSN:0960-9822Google Scholar
  6. Di Giorgio E, Méary D, Pascalis O, Simion F (2013) The face perception system becomes species specific at three months: an eye-tracking study. Int J Behav Dev 37:95–99. doi: 10.1177/0165025412465362 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Engbert R, Kliegl R (2003) Microsaccade uncover the orientation of covert attention. Vis Res 43:1035–1045. doi: 10.1016/S0042-6989(03)00084-1 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Enquist M, Arak A (1994) Symmetry, beauty and evolution. Nature 372:169–172. doi: 10.1038/372169a0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fantz RL (1964) Visual experience in infants: decreased attention to familiar patterns relative to novel ones. Sci New Ser 146:668–670Google Scholar
  10. Fujita K (1987) Species recognition by five macaque monkeys. Primates 28:353–366. doi: 10.1007/BF02381018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ge L, Zhang H, Wang Z, Quinn PC, Pascalis O, Kelly D, Lee K (2009) Two faces of the other-race effect: recognition and categorisation of Caucasian and Chinese faces. Perception 38:1199–1210. doi: 10.1068/p6136 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gothard KM, Erickson CA, Amaral DG (2004) How do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) scan faces in a visual paired comparison task? Anim Cogn 7:25–36. doi: 10.1007/s10071-003-0179-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gothard KM, Brooks KN, Peterson MA (2009) Multiple perceptual strategies used by macaque monkeys for face recognition. Anim Cogn 12:155–167. doi: 10.1007/s10071-008-0179-7 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heron-Delaney M, Anzures G, Herbert JS, Quinn PC, Slater AM, Tanaka JW, Pascalis O (2011) Perceptual training prevents the emergence of the other race effect during infancy. PLoS One 6:e19858. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019858 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Higgins ET (1996) Knowledge activation: accessibility, applicability, and salience. In: Higgins ET, Kruglanski AW (eds) Social psychology: handbook of basic principles. Guilford Press, New York, pp 133–168, ISBN:10:1-57230-918-0Google Scholar
  16. Hirata S, Fuwa K, Sugama K, Kusunoki K, Fujita S (2010) Facial perception of conspecifics: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially attend to proper orientation and open eyes. Anim Cogn 13:679–688. doi: 10.1007/s10071-010-0316-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Johnson KJ, Fredrickson BL (2005) We all look the same to me: positive emotions eliminate the own-race bias in face recognition. Psychol Sci 16:875–881. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01631.x PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kelly DJ, Quinn PC, Slater AM, Lee K, Gibson A, Smith M, Pascalis O (2005) Three-month-olds, but not newborns, prefer own-race faces. Dev Sci 8:F31–F36. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2005.0434a.x PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Leinbach MD, Fagot BI (1993) Categorical habituation to male and female faces: gender schematic processing in infancy. Infant Behav Dev 16:317–332. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leonard TK, Blumenthal G, Gothard KM, Hoffman KL (2012) How macaques view familiarity and gaze in conspecific faces. Behav Neurosci 126:781–791. doi: 10.1037/a0030348 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Macrae CN, Bodenhausen GV, Milne AB (1995) The dissection of selection in person perception: inhibitory processes in social stereotyping. J Pers Soc Psychol 69:397–407. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.69.3.397 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mahajan N, Martinez MA, Gutierrez NL, Diesendruck G, Banaji MR, Santos LR (2011) J Pers Soc Psychol 100: 387–405. doi:  10.1037/a0022459 Google Scholar
  23. McFarland R, Roebuck H, Yan Y, Majolo B, Li W, Guo K (2013) Social interactions through the eyes of macaques and humans. PLoS One 8:e56437. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056437 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Michel C, Caldara R, Rossion B (2006) Same-race faces are perceived more holistically than other-race faces. Vis Cogn 14:55–73. doi: 10.1080/13506280500158761 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Park J, Shimojo E, Shimojo S (2010) Roles of familiarity and novelty in visual preference judgments are segregated across object categories. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:14552–14555. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1004374107 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Parr LA (2011) The evolution of face processing in primates. Philos Trans R Soc B 366:1764–1777. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0358 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pascalis O, Wirth S (2011) Recognizing the face of other species: What can a limited skill tell us about face processing? In: Calder A, Rhodes G, Johnson MH, Haxby JV (eds) The Oxford handbook of face perception. Oxford Library of Psychology, Oxford, pp 719–730, ISBN:978-0199559053Google Scholar
  28. Quinn PC, Yahr J, Kuhn A, Slater AM, Pascalis O (2002) Representation of the gender of human faces by infants: a preference for female. Perception 31:1109–1122. doi: 10.1068/p3331 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. R Development Core Team (2008) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org
  30. Rentschler I, Jüttner M, Unzicker A, Landis T (1999) Innate and learned components of human visual preference. Curr Biol 9:665–671. doi: 10.1016/S0960-9822(99)80306-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sugita Y (2008) Face perception in monkeys reared with no exposure to faces. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:394–398. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0706079105 PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tanaka JW (2001) The entry point of face recognition: evidence for face expertise. J Exp Psychol Gen 130:534–543. doi: 10.1037/0096-3445.130.3.534 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Taylor C, Schloss K, Palmer SE, Franklin A (2013) Color preferences in infants and adults are different. Psychon Bull Rev 20:916–922. doi: 10.3758/s13423-013-0411-6 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zajonc RB (1968) Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. J Pers Soc Psychol Monogr 9:11–27. doi: 10.1037/h0025848 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Méary
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zhihan Li
    • 3
  • Wu Li
    • 3
  • Kun Guo
    • 2
  • Olivier Pascalis
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Psychologie et Neurocognition, CNRS UMR 5105Université Grenoble AlpesGrenoble Cedex 9France
  2. 2.School of PsychologyUniversity of LincolnLincolnUK
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain ResearchBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations