Animal Cognition

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 445–458

Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory-based testing

  • Regina Paxton Gazes
  • Emily Kathryn Brown
  • Benjamin M. Basile
  • Robert R. Hampton
Original Paper

Abstract

Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory-housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch-screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching-to-sample memory test. Despite the differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments.

Keywords

Transitive inference Memory Classification Psychophysics Rhesus macaque Social housing RFID 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Regina Paxton Gazes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Emily Kathryn Brown
    • 2
  • Benjamin M. Basile
    • 2
  • Robert R. Hampton
    • 2
  1. 1.AtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology and Yerkes National Primate Research CenterEmory UniversityAtlantaUSA

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