Animal Cognition

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 443–459 | Cite as

Modularity of mind and the role of incentive motivation in representing novelty

Review

Abstract

Animal and human brains contain a myriad of mental representations that have to be successfully tracked within fractions of a second in a large number of situations. This retrieval process is hard to explain without postulating the massive modularity of cognition. Assuming that the mind is massively modular, it is then necessary to understand how cognitive modules can efficiently represent dynamic environments—in which some modules may have to deal with change-induced novelty and uncertainty. Novelty of a stimulus is a problem for a module when unknown, significant stimuli do not satisfy the module’s processing criteria—or domain specificity—and cannot therefore be included in its database. It is suggested that the brain mechanisms of incentive motivation, recruited when faced with novelty and uncertainty, induce transient variations in the domain specificity of cognitive modules in order to allow them to process information they were not prepared to learn. It is hypothesised that the behavioural transitions leading from exploratory activity to habit formation are correlated with (and possibly caused by) the organism’s ability to counter novelty-induced uncertainty.

Keywords

Dopamine Modularity Motivation Novelty Striatum Uncertainty 

References

  1. Anselme P (2006) Opportunistic behaviour in animals and robots. J Exp Theor Artif Int 18:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anselme P (2010) The uncertainty processing theory of motivation. Behav Brain Res 208:291–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashby FG, Turner BO, Horvitz JC (2010) Cortical and basal ganglia contributions to habit learning and automaticity. Trends Cogn Sci 14:208–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atkinson AP, Wheeler M (2004) The grain of domains: the evolutionary-psychological case against domain-general cognition. Mind Lang 19:147–176Google Scholar
  5. Balleine BW (1992) Instrumental performance following a shift in primary motivation depends on incentive learning. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 18:236–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balleine BW, Dickinson A (1998a) The role of incentive learning in instrumental outcome revaluation by sensory-specific satiety. Anim Learn Behav 26:46–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balleine BW, Dickinson A (1998b) Goal-directed instrumental action: contingency and incentive learning and their cortical substrates. Neuropharmacol 37:407–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Balleine BW, O’Doherty JP (2010) Human and rodent homologies in action control: corticostriatal determinants of goal-directed and habitual actions. Neuropsychopharmacol 35:48–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balleine BW, Liljeholm M, Ostlund SB (2009) The integrative function of the basal ganglia in instrumental conditioning. Behav Brain Res 199:43–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bardo MT, Donohew RL, Harrington NG (1996) Psychobiology of novelty-seeking and drug-seeking behavior. Behav Brain Res 77:23–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barrett HC, Kurzban R (2006) Modularity in cognition: framing the debate. Psychol Rev 113:628–647PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Belin D, Everitt BJ (2008) Cocaine seeking habits depend upon dopamine-dependent serial connectivity linking the ventral with the dorsal striatum. Neuron 57:432–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berlyne DE (1960) Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berridge KC (2004) Motivation concepts in behavioral neuroscience. Physiol Behav 81:179–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berridge KC (2007) The debate over dopamine’s role in reward: the case of incentive salience. Psychopharmacology 19:391–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bindra D (1978) How adaptive behavior is produced: a perceptual-motivational alternative to response-reinforcement. Behav Brain Sci 1:41–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blokland A (1996) Acetylcholine: a neurotransmitter for learning and memory? Brain Res Rev 21:285–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Boakes RA (1977) Performance on learning to associate a stimulus with positive reinforcement. In: Davis H, Hurwitz HMB (eds) Operant-pavlovian interactions. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey, pp 67–97Google Scholar
  19. Bolles RC (1970) Species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning. Psychol Rev 77:32–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Braun JJ (1990) Gustatory cortex: definition and function. In: Kolb B, Tees R (eds) The cerebral cortex of the rat. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 407–430Google Scholar
  21. Breland K, Breland M (1961) The misbehavior of organisms. Am Psychol 16:681–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buxbaum LJ, Glosser G, Coslett HB (1996) Relative sparing of object recognition in alexia-prosopagnosia. Brain Cogn 32:202–205Google Scholar
  23. Cannon CM, Bseikri MR (2004) Is dopamine required for natural reward? Physiol Behav 81:741–748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Carelli RM, Wolske M, West MO (1997) Loss of lever-press related firing of rat striatal forelimb neurons after repeated sessions in a lever pressing task. J Neurosci 17:1804–1814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Carruthers P (2006) The architecture of the mind. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cheng K (1986) A purely geometric module in the rat’s spatial representation. Cognition 23:149–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clark A, Karmiloff-Smith A (1993) The cognizer’s innards: a psychological and philosophical perspective on the development of thought. Mind Lang 8:487–519Google Scholar
  28. Coltheart M (1999) Modularity and cognition. Trends Cogn Sci 3:115–120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Corbit LH, Janak PH (2010) Posterior dorsomedial striatum is critical for both selective instrumental and Pavlovian reward learning. Eur J Neurosci 31:1312–1321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cosmides L, Tooby J (2000) Evolutionary psychology and the emotions. In: Lewis M, Haviland-Jones JM (eds) Handbook of emotions. Guilford, New York, pp 91–115Google Scholar
  31. Coutureau E, Killcross S (2003) Inactivation of the infralimbic prefrontal cortex reinstates goal-directed responding in overtrained rats. Behav Brain Res 146:167–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cowan P (1985) Exploration in small animals: ethology and ecology. In: Archer J, Birke L (eds) Exploration in animals and humans. Van Nostrand Reinhold Ltd, London, pp 147–175Google Scholar
  33. Craig W (1918) Appetites and aversions as constituents of instincts. Biol Bull 34:91–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. De Renzi E, Di Pellegrino G (1998) Prosopagnosia and alexia without object agnosia. Cortex 34:403–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dennett D (1984) Cognitive wheels: the frame problem of AI. In: Hookaway C (ed) Minds, machines and evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 129–151Google Scholar
  36. Devan BD, McDonald RJ, White NM (1999) Effects of medial and lateral caudate-putamen lesions on place- and cue-guided behaviors in the water maze: relation to thigmotaxis. Behav Brain Res 100:5–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Di Chiara G (2002) Nucleus accumbens shell and core dopamine: differential role in behavior and addiction. Behav Brain Res 137:75–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dickinson A, Dawson GR (1988) Motivational control of instrumental performance: The role of prior experience of the reinforcer. Q J Exp Psychol 40B:113–134Google Scholar
  39. Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2005) Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction: from actions to habits to compulsion. Nat Neurosci 11:1481–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ewert JP (1987) Neuroethology of releasing mechanisms: prey-catching in toads. Behav Brain Sci 10:337–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fiorillo CD, Tobler PN, Schultz W (2003) Discrete coding of reward probability and uncertainty by dopamine neurons. Science 299:1898–1902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Flagel SB, Clark JJ, Robinson TE, Mayo L, Czuj A, Willuhn I, Akers CA, Clinton SM, Phillips PEM, Akil H (2011) A selective role for dopamine in stimulus-reward learning. Nature 469:53–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fodor JA (1983) The modularity of mind. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  44. Fodor J (2000) The mind doesn’t work that way: the scope and limits of computational psychology. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  45. Forkman B (1996) The foraging behaviour of Mongolian gerbils: a behavioural need or a need to know? Behaviour 133:129–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Franken IHA, Hendricks VM, Stam CJ, van der Brink W (2004) A role for dopamine in the processing of drug cues in heroin dependent patients. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 14:503–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Franken IHA, Booij J, van der Brink W (2005) The role of dopamine in human addiction: from reward to motivated attention. Eur J Pharmacol 526:199–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gallistel CR (2000) The replacement of general-purpose learning models with adaptively specialized learning modules. In: Gazzaniga MS (ed) The cognitive neuroscience. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 1179–1191Google Scholar
  49. Gallistel CR, Gibbon J (2000) Time, rate, and conditioning. Psychol Rev 107:289–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Giovannini MG, Bartolini L, Kopf SR, Pepeu G (1998) Acetylcholine release from the frontal cortex during exploratory activity. Brain Res 784:218–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gratton A, Wise RA (1994) Drug- and behavior-associated changes in dopamine-related electrochemical signals during intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats. J Neurosci 14:4130–4146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Green L, Myerson J (1996) Exponential versus hyperbolic discounting of delayed outcome: risk and waiting time. Am Zool 36:496–505Google Scholar
  53. Greenberg R (1990) Ecological plasticity, neophobia and resource use in birds. Stud Avian Biol 13:431–437Google Scholar
  54. Hadley RF (2003) A defence of functional modularity. Connect Sci 15:95–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hermer L, Spelke ES (1994) A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children. Nature 370:57–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Horvitz JC (2000) Mesolimbocortical and nigrostriatal dopamine responses to salient non-reward events. Neurosci 96:651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Howard MA, Simons DJ (1994) Physiologic effects of nucleus basalis magnetocellularis stimulation on rat barrel cortex neurons. Exp Brain Res 102:21–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hull CL (1943) Principles of behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  59. Ikemoto S, Panksepp J (1999) The role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in motivated behavior: a unifying interpretation with special reference to reward-seeking. Brain Res Rev 31:6–41PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Inglis FM, Day JC, Fibiger HC (1994) Enhanced acetylcholine release in hippocampus and cortex during the anticipation and consumption of a palatable meal. Neuroscience 62:1049–1056PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Inglis IR, Forkman B, Lazarus J (1997) Free food or earned food? A review and fuzzy model of contrafreeloading. Anim Behav 53:1171–1191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jueptner M, Stephan KM, Frith CD, Brooks DJ, Frackowiak RSJ, Passingham RE (1997) Anatomy of motor learning. I. Frontal cortex and attention to action. J Neurophysiol 77:1313–1324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Juliano S, Ma W, Eslin D (1991) Cholinergic depletion prevents expansion of topographic maps in somatosensory cortex. P Natl Acad Sci USA 88:780–784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kacelnik A, Bateson M (1996) Risky theories: the effects of variance on foraging decisions. Am Zool 36:402–434Google Scholar
  65. Kalivas PW, Duffy P (1995) Selective activation of dopamine transmission in the shell of the nucleus accumbens by stress. Brain Res 675:325–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Karmiloff-Smith A (1992) Beyond modularity: a developmental perspective in cognitive science. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  67. Kauffman NA, Herman CP, Polivy J (1995) Hunger-induced finickiness in humans. Appetite 24:203–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kelly DM, Spetch ML, Heth CD (1998) Pigeon’s (Columba livia) encoding of geometric and featural properties of a spatial environment. J Comp Psychol 112:259–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kheramin S, Body S, Ho M-Y, Velazquez-Martinez DN, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E, Deakin JFW, Anderson IM (2003) Role of the orbital prefrontal cortex in choice between delayed and uncertain reinforcers: a quantitative analysis. Behav Process 64:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM (1998) Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity. Science 279:1714–1718PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kimchi EY, Laubach M (2009) The dorsomedial striatum reflects response bias during learning. J Neurosci 29:14891–14902PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kiyatkin EA, Wise RA, Gratton A (1993) Drug- and behavior-associated changes in dopamine-related electrochemical signals during intravenous heroin self-administration in rats. Synapse 14:60–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kosslyn SM (2001) The strategic eye: another look. Minds Mach 11:287–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lorenz K (1984) Les fondements de l’éthologie. Champs Flammarion, ParisGoogle Scholar
  75. Lovibond PF (1983) Facilitation of instrumental behavior by a Pavlovian appetitive conditioned stimulus. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 9:225–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mark GP, Rada P, Pothos E, Hoebel BG (1992) Effects of feeding and drinking on acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens, striatum, and hippocampus of freely behaving rats. J Neurochem 58:2269–2274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Martel P, Fantino M (1996) Mesolimbic dopaminergic system activity as a function of food reward: a microdialysis study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 53:221–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. McCullough LD, Salamone JD (1992) Anxiogenic drugs beta-CCE and FG 7142 increase extracellular dopamine levels in nucleus accumbens. Psychopharmacology 109:379–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Menzel R, Giurfa M (2001) Cognitive architecture of a mini-brain: the honeybee. Trends Cogn Sci 5:62–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mitchell M (1999a) Can evolution explain how the mind works? A review of the evolutionary psychology debates. Complexity 4:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mitchell SH (1999b) Measures of impulsivity in cigarette smokers and non-smokers. Psychopharmacology 146:455–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Miyachi S, Hikosaka O, Miyashita K, Karadi Z, Rand MK (1997) Differential roles of monkey striatum in learning of sequential hand movement. Exp Brain Res 115:1–5PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mobini S, Chiang T-J, Ho M-Y, Bradshaw CM, Szabadi E (2000) Effects of central 5-hydroxytryptamine depletion on sensitivity to delayed and probabilistic reinforcement. Psychopharmacology 152:390–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Moore H, Fadel J, Sarter M, Bruno JP (1999) Role of accumbens and cortical dopamine receptors in the regulation of cortical acetylcholine release. Neuroscience 88:811–822PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nelson AJD, Thur KE, Horsley RR, Spicer C, Marsden CA, Cassaday HJ (2011) Reduced dopamine function within the medial shell of the nucleus accumbens enhances latent inhibition. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 98:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nieoullon A (2002) Dopamine and the regulation of cognition and attention. Prog in Neurobiol 67:53–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Orsetti M, Casamenti F, Pepeu G (1996) Enhanced acetylcholine release in the hippocampus and cortex during acquisition of an operant behaviour. Brain Res 724:89–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ostaszewski P, Green L, Myerson J (1998) Effects of inflation on the subjective value of delayed and probabilistic rewards. Psychonom Bull Rev 5:324–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Packard MG, McGaugh JL (1996) Inactivation of hippocampus or caudate nucleus with lidocaine differentially affects expression of place and response learning. Neurobiol Learn Mem 65:65–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Panksepp J, Panksepp JB (2000) The seven sins of evolutionary psychology. Evol Cognit 6:108–131Google Scholar
  91. Pecina S, Schulkin J, Berridge KC (2006) Nucleus accumbens corticotropin-releasing factor increases cue-triggered motivation for sucrose reward: paradoxical positive incentive effects in stress? BMC Biol 4:8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pinker S (1997) How the mind works. W.W. Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Pinker S (2005) So how does the mind work? Mind Lang 20:1–24Google Scholar
  94. Preuschoff K, Bossaerts P, Quartz SR (2006) Neural differentiation of expected reward and risk in human subcortical structures. Neuron 51:381–390PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Quartz SR, Sejnowski TJ (1997) The neural basis of development: a constructivist manifesto. Behav Brain Sci 20:537–596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rachlin H, Raineri A (1992) Irrationality, impulsiveness and selfishness as discount reversal effects. In: Loewenstein G, Elster J (eds) Choice over time. Russell Sage, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  97. Rada P, Mark GP, Hoebel BG (1998) Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens released by hypothalamic stimulation-escape behavior. Brain Res 782:228–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ragozzino ME (2007) The contribution of the medial prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and dorsomedial striatum to behavioural flexibility. Ann NY Acad Sci 1121:355–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rand MK, Hikosaka O, Miyachi S, Lu X, Nakamura K, Kitaguchi K, Shimo Y (2000) Characteristics of sequential movements during early learning period in monkeys. Exp Brain Res 131:293–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rasmusson DD (2000) The role of acetylcholine in cortical synaptic plasticity. Behav Brain Res 115:205–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Redgrave P, Gurney K, Reynolds J (2008) What is reinforced by phasic dopamine signals? Brain Res Rev 58:322–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Robinson TE, Berridge KC (2000) The psychology and neurobiology of addiction: an incentive-sensitization view. Addiction (Suppl.) 95:S91–S117Google Scholar
  103. Rostand J (1970) La vie des crapauds. Dunod, ParisGoogle Scholar
  104. Rumiati RI, Humphreys GW (1997) Visual object agnosia without alexia or prosopagnosia: arguments for separate knowledge stores. Vis Cogn 4:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Samuels R (2005) The complexity of cognition: tractability arguments for massive modularity. In: Carruthers P, Laurence S, Stich S (eds) The innate mind: structure and content. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 107–121Google Scholar
  106. Sarter M, Bruno JP, Turchi J (1999) Basal forebrain afferent projections modulating cortical acetylcholine, attention, and implications for neuropsychiatric disorders. Ann NY Acad Sci 877:368–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sarter M, Nelson CL, Bruno JP (2005) Cortical cholinergic transmission and cortical information processing in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bull 31:117–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sarter M, Gehring WJ, Kozak R (2006) More attention must be paid: the neurobiology of attentional effort. Brain Res Rev 51:145–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schino G, Perretta G, Taglioni AM, Monaco V, Troisi A (1996) Primate displacement activities as an ethopharmacological model of anxiety. Anxiety 2:186–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Schultz W (2010) Dopamine signals for reward value and risk: basic and recent data. Behav Brain Funct 6:24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Schultz W, Apicella P, Ljungberg T (1993) Responses of monkey dopamine neurons to reward and conditioned stimuli during successive steps of learning a delayed response task. J Neurosci 13:900–913PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Shanahan M, Baars B (2005) Applying global workspace theory to the frame problem. Cognition 98:157–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Sovrano VA, Bisazza A, Vallortigara G (2002) Modularity and spatial reorientation in a simple mind: encoding of geometric and nongeometric properties of a spatial environment by fish. Cognition 85:B51–B59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Sperber D (1994) The modularity of thought and the epidemiology of representations. In: Hirschfeld LA, Gelman SA (eds) Mapping the mind: Domain specificity in cognition and culture. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 39–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sperber D (2002) In defense of massive modularity. In: Dupoux E (ed) Language, brain and cognitive development: essays in honor of Jacques Mehler. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 47–57Google Scholar
  116. Sperber D (2005) Modularity and relevance: how can a massively modular mind be flexible and context-sensitive? In: Carruthers P, Laurence S, Stich S (eds) The innate mind: structure and content. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 53–68Google Scholar
  117. Stalnaker TA, Calhoon GG, Ogawa M, Roesch MR, Schoenbaum G (2010) Neural correlates of stimulus-response and response-outcome associations in dorsolateral versus dorsomedial striatum. Front Integ Neurosci 4:1–18Google Scholar
  118. Tang C, Pawlak AP, Prokopenko V, West MO (2007) Changes in activity of the striatum during formation of a motor habit. Eur J Neurosci 25:1212–1227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Tooby J, Cosmides L (1992) The psychological foundations of culture. In: Barkow JH, Cosmides L, Tooby J (eds) The adapted mind: evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 19–136Google Scholar
  120. Tricomi E, Balleine BW, O’Doherty JP (2009) A specific role for posterior dorsolateral striatum in human habit learning. Eur J Neurosci 29:2225–2232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Turchi J, Sarter M (1997) Cortical acetylcholine and processing capacity: effects of cortical cholinergic deafferentation on crossmodal divided attention in rats. Cognit Brain Res 6:147–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Uttal WR (2001) The new phrenology: the limits of localizing cognitive processes in the brain. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  123. von Frisch K (1967) The dance-language and orientation of bees. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  124. Wadenberg M-L, Ericson E, Magnusson O, Ahlenius S (1990) Suppression of conditioned avoidance behavior by the local application of (–)sulpiride into the ventral, but not the dorsal, striatum of the rat. Biol Psychiat 28:297–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Webster HH, Hanisch UK, Dykes RW, Biesold D (1991a) Basal forebrain lesions with or without reserpine injection inhibit cortical reorganization in rat hindpaw primary somatosensory cortex following sciatic nerve section. Somatosens Mot Res 8:327–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Webster HH, Rasmusson DD, Dykes RW, Schliebs R, Schober W, Brückner G, Biesold D (1991b) Long-term enhancement of evoked potentials in raccoon somatosensory cortex following co-activation of the nucleus basal of Meynert complex and cutaneous receptors. Brain Res 545:292–296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Wehner R, Flatt I (1972) The visual orientation of desert ants, Cataglyphis bicolor, by means of territorial cues. In: Wehner R (ed) Information processing in the visual system of arthropods. Springer, New York, pp 295–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Weinstein A, Feldtkeller B, Malizia A, Wilson S, Bailey J, Nutt DJ (1998) Integrating the cognitive and physiological aspects of craving. J Psychopharmacol 12:31–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wickens JR, Budd CS, Hyland BI, Arbuthnott GW (2007) Striatal contributions to reward and decision making: making sense of regional variations in the reiterated processing matrix. Ann NY Acad Sci 1104:192–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Yin HH, Knowlton BJ (2004) Contributions of striatal subregions to place and response learning. Learn Mem 11:459–463PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Yin HH, Knowlton BJ (2006) The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation. Nature Rev Neurosci 7:464–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yin HH, Knowlton BJ, Balleine BW (2004) Lesions of dorsolateral striatum preserve outcome expectancy but disrupt habit formation in instrumental learning. Eur J Neurosci 19:181–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Yin HH, Mulcare SP, Hilario MR, Clouse E, Holloway T, Davis MI, Hansson AC, Lovinger DM, Costa RM (2009) Dynamic reorganization of striatal circuits during the acquisition and consolidation of a skill. Nat Neurosci 12:333–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Young AM, Joseph MH, Gray JA (1993) Latent inhibition of conditioned dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens. Neuroscience 54:5–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Young AMJ, Ahier RG, Upton RL, Joseph MH, Gray JA (1998) Increased extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the rat during associative learning of neutral stimuli. Neuroscience 83:1175–1183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Young AMJ, Moran PM, Joseph MH (2005) The role of dopamine in conditioning and latent inhibition: what, when, where and how? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:963–976PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Département de Psychologie, Cognition et ComportementUniversité de LiègeLiègeBelgium

Personalised recommendations