Animal Cognition

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 239–248

Signals use by leaders in Macaca tonkeana and Macaca mulatta: group-mate recruitment and behaviour monitoring

Original Paper
  • 255 Downloads

Abstract

Animals living in groups have to make consensus decisions and communicate with each other about the time, or the direction, in which to move. In some species, the process relies on the proposition of a single individual, i.e. a first individual suggests a movement and the other group members decide whether or not to join this individual. In Tonkean (Macaca tonkeana) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), it has been observed that this first individual displays specific signals at departure. In this paper, we aimed to explore the function of such behaviours, i.e. if these behaviours were recruitment signals or only cues about the motivation of the first departed individual. We carried out temporal analyses and studied the latencies of the first departed individual’s behaviours and of the joining of other group members. We also assessed whether the social style of a species in terms of dominance and kinship relationships influenced the patterns of signal emissions. We then analyzed how the first departed individual decided to make a pause or to stop it according to the identities of group members that joined the collective movement. Results showed that Tonkean macaques and rhesus macaques seemed to use back-glances to monitor the joining of other group members and pauses to recruit such individuals. This was especially the case for highly socially affiliated individuals in Tonkean macaques and kin-related individuals in rhesus macaques. Moreover, back-glances and pauses disappeared when such individuals joined the first departed individual. From these results, we suggested that such behaviour could be considered intentional. Such findings could not be highlighted without temporal analyses and accurate observations on primate groups in semi-free ranging conditions.

Keywords

Decision-making Collective movement Intention Macaque Social style Kinship 

References

  1. Alexander RD (1974) The evolution of social behavior. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 5:326–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altmann J (1974) Observational study of behaviour: sampling methods. Behaviour 49:227–265CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altmann J, Altmann SA (1974) Baboon ecology. African field research. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  4. Boesch C (1991) Symbolic communication in wild chimpanzees? Human Evol 6:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boinski S, Campbell AF (1995) Use of trill vocalizations to coordinate troop movement among white-faced capuchins: a second field test. Behaviour 132:875–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boinski S, Garber PA (2000) On the move. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p 822Google Scholar
  7. Carpenter CR (1934) A field study of the behaviour and social relations of howling monkeys. Comp Psychol Monogr 48:1–168Google Scholar
  8. Chauvin C, Thierry B (2005) Tonkean macaques orient their food search from olfactory cues conveyed by conspecifics. Ethology 111:301–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Conradt L, Roper TJ (2005) Consensus decision making in animals. Trends Ecol Evol 20:449–456. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2005.05.008 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Couzin ID, Krause J, Franks NR, Levin SA (2005) Effective leadership and decision-making in animal groups on the move. Nature 433:513–516CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. de Vries H, Netto WJ, Hanegraaf PLH (1993) Matman: a program for the analysis of sociometric matrices and behavioural transition matrices. Behaviour 125:157–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Waal FBM, Luttrell LM (1989) Toward a comparative socioecology of the genus Macaca: different dominance styles in rhesus and stumptail monkeys. Am J Primatol 19:83–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Drapier M, Chauvin C, Thierry B (2002) Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) find food sources from cues conveyed by group-mates. Anim Cogn 5:159–165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ducoing AM, Thierry B (2003) Withholding information in semifree-ranging Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana). J Comp Psychol 117:67–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ducoing AM, Thierry B (2004) Joining and joining the informed individual in semifree-ranging Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana). J Comp Psychol 118:413–420CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Flack JC, de Waal F (2007) Context modulates signal meaning in primate communication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:1581–1586. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603565104 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Garber PA (1988) Foraging decisions during nectar feeding bytamarin monkeys (Saguinus mystax and Saguinus fuscicollis, Callitrichidae, Primates) in Amazonian Peru. Biotropica 20:100–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gros-Louis J (2004) The function of food-associated calls in white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus, from the perspective of the signaller. Anim behav 67:431–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hall KRL, DeVore I (1965) Baboon social behaviour. In: DeVore I (ed) Primate behaviour: field studies of monkeys and apes. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, pp 53–110Google Scholar
  20. Hemelrijk CK (1990) A matrix partial correlation test used in investigations of reciprocity and other social interaction patterns at a group level. J Theor Biol 143:405–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holekamp KE, Boydston EE, Smale L (2000) Group travel in social carnivores. In: Boinski S, Garber PA (eds) On the move. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 587–627Google Scholar
  22. Itani J (1963) Vocal communication of the wild Japanese monkey. Primates 4:11–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Judge PG, de Waal FBM (1997) Rhesus monkey behaviour under diverse population densities: coping with long-term crowding. Anim Behav 54:643–662CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Krause J, Ruxton GD (2002) Living in groups. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  25. Kummer H (1968) Social organization of Hamadryas Baboons. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, p 189Google Scholar
  26. Leca JB, Gunst N, Thierry B, Petit O (2003) Distributed leadership in semifree-ranging white-faced capuchin monkeys. Anim Behav 66:1045–1052. doi:10.1006/anbe.2003.2276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maestripieri D (1996a) Maternal encouragement of infant locomotion in pigtail macaques, Macaca nemestrina. Anim Behav 51:603–610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maestripieri D (1996b) Gestural communication and its cognitive implications in Pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Behaviour 133:997–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Makwana SC (1978) Field ecology and behaviour of the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta): I. Group composition, home range, roosting sites, and foraging routes in the Asarori Forest. Primates 10:483–492. doi:10.1007/BF02373310 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mehlman PT (1996) Branch shaking and related displays in wild Barbary macaques. In: Fa JE, Lindburg DG (eds) Evolution and ecology of macaque societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 503–526Google Scholar
  31. Menzel EW (1971) Communication about the environment in a group of young chimpanzees. Folia Primatol 15:220–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Meunier H, Deneubourg JL, Petit O (2007) How many for dinner? Recruitment and monitoring by glances in capuchins. Primates 49:26–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Mitani J, Nishida T (1993) Contexts and social correlates of longdistance calling by male chimpanzees. Anim Behav 45:735–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Noser R, Byrne RW (2007) Travel routes and planning of visits to out-of-sight resources in wild chacma baboons, Papio ursinus. Anim Behav 73:257–266. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.04.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pallant J (2007) SPSS survival manual: a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS. Allen & Uwin, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  36. Petit O, Bertrand B, Thierry B (2008) Social play in crested and Japanese macaques: testing the covariation hypothesis. J Dev Psychobiol 50:399–407. doi:10.1002/dev.20305 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pochron S (2001) Can concurrent speed and directness of travel indicate purposeful encounters in the yellow baboons (Papio hamadryas cynocephalus) of Ruaha National Park, Tanzania? Int J Primatol 22:773–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Prins HHT (1996) Ecology and behaviour of the African buffalo. Chapman and Hall, London, p 320Google Scholar
  39. Riley EP (2005) The loud call of the Sulawesi Tonkean macaque, Macaca tonkeana. TropBiodivers 8:199–209Google Scholar
  40. Sigg H, Stolba A (1981) Home range and daily march in a hamadryas baboon troop. Folia Primatol 36:40–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Stueckle S, Zinner D (2008) To follow or not to follow: decision making and leadership during the morning departure in chacma baboons. Anim Behav 75:1995–2004. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.12.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sueur C, Petit O (2008a) Shared or unshared consensus decision in macaques. Behav Proc 78:84–92. doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2008.01.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sueur C, Petit O (2008b) Organization of group members at departure of joint movements is driven by social structure in macaques. Int J Primatol 29:1085–1098. doi:10.1007/s10764-008-9262-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Supriatna J, Froehlich JW, Erwin JM, Southwick CH (1992) Population habitat and conservation status of M. maurus, Mtonkeana and their putative hybrids. Trop Biodivers 1:31–48Google Scholar
  45. Thierry B (2004) Social epigenesis. In: Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns W (eds) Macaque societies: a model for the study of social organization. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 267–290Google Scholar
  46. Thierry B (2007) Unity in diversity: lessons from macaque societies. Evol Anthropol 16:224–238. doi:10.1002/evan.20147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Thierry B, Bynum EL, Baker S, Kinnaird MF, Matsumura S, Muroyama Y, O’Brien TG, Petit O, Watanabe K (2000) The social repertoire of Sulawesi macaques. Primate Res 16:203–226Google Scholar
  48. Thierry B, Singh M, Kaumanns W (2004) Macaque societies: a model for the study of social organization. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  49. Thierry B, Aureli F, Nunn CL, Petit O, Abegg C, de Waal FBM (2008) A comparative study of conflict resolution in macaques: insights into the nature of trait co-variation. Anim Behav 75:847–860. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.07.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tomasello M, Call J (1997) Primate cognition. Oxford University Press, New York, p 517Google Scholar
  51. Watts DP (2000) Mountain gorilla habitat use strategies and group movements. In: Boinski S, Garber PA (eds) On the move. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 351–374Google Scholar
  52. Whitehead H (1997) Analysing animal social structure. Anim Behav 53:1053–1067. doi:10.1016/0197-2456(92)90017-T CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Whitehead H (2009) SOCPROG programs: analysing animal social structures. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 63:775–778. doi:10.1007/s00265-008-0697-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Whitten AL, Mustafa M, Henderson GS (1987) The ecology of Sulawesi. Gadjah Mada University Press, YogyakartaGoogle Scholar
  55. Wrangham RW (1980) An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups. Behaviour 75:262–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departement d’Ecologie, Physiologie et EthologieCentre National de la Recherche Scientifique & Université de StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance

Personalised recommendations