Animal Cognition

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 213–215 | Cite as

The role of humans in the cognitive development of apes revisited



  1. Bering J (2004) A critical review of the enculturation hypothesis: the effects of human rearing on great ape social cognition. Anim Cogn. DOI 10.1007/s10071-004-0210-6Google Scholar
  2. Bering J, Bjorklund DF, Ragan P (2000) Deferred imitation of object-related actions in human reared juvenile chimpanzees and orangutans. Dev Psychobiol 36:218–232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bjorklund DF, Yunger JL, Bering JM, Ragan P (2002) The generalization of deferred imitation in enculturated chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Anim Cogn 5:49–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Call J, Tomasello M (1994) Production and comprehension of referential pointing by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). J Comp Psychol 108:307–317CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Call J, Tomasello M (1996) The effect of humans on the cognitive development of apes. In: Russon AE, Bard KA, Parker ST (eds) Reaching into thought. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 371–403Google Scholar
  6. Call J, Tomasello M (1998) Distinguishing intentional from accidental actions in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and human children (Homo sapiens). J Comp Psychol 112:192–206CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Call J, Agnetta B, Tomasello M (2000) Social cues that chimpanzees do and do not use to find hidden objects. Anim Cogn 3:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Call J, Hare BH, Carpenter M, Tomasello M (2004) ‘Unwilling’ versus ‘unable’: chimpanzees’ understanding of intentional action. Dev Sci (in press)Google Scholar
  9. Carpenter M, Tomasello M, Savage-Rumbaugh ES (1995) Joint attention and imitative learning in children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Soc Dev 4:217–237Google Scholar
  10. Gómez JC (1996) Non-human primate theories of (non-human primate) minds: some issues concerning the origins of mind-reading. In: Carruthers P, Smith PK (eds) Theories of theories of mind, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 330–343Google Scholar
  11. Hare B, Call J, Agnetta B, Tomasello M (2000) Chimpanzees know what conspecifics do and do not see. Anim Behav 59:771–785CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hare B, Call J, Tomasello M (2001) Do chimpanzees know what conspecifics know and do not know? Anim Behav 61:139–151CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Itakura S, Tanaka M (1998) Use of experimenter-given cues during object-choice tasks by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and human infants (Homo sapiens). J Comp Psychol 112:119–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Karin-D’Arcy R, Povinelli DJ (2003) Do chimpanzees know what each other see? A closer look. Int J Comp Psychol 15:21–54Google Scholar
  15. Leavens DA, Hopkins WD (1999) The whole-hand point: the structure and function of pointing from a comparative perspective. J Comp Psychol 113:417–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Povinelli DJ, Vonk J (2003) Chimpanzee minds: suspiciously human? Trends Cogn Sci 7:157–160CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Tomasello M, Call J (2004) Social cognition in chimpanzees. In: Hurley S, Nudds M (eds) Rational animals, Oxford University Press, Oxford (in press)Google Scholar
  18. Tomasello M, Savage-Rumbaugh ES, Kruger AC (1993) Imitative learning of actions on objects by children, chimpanzees, and enculturated chimpanzees. Child Dev 64:1688–1705PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Tomasello M, Call J, Hare B (2003a) Chimpanzees understand psychological states—the question is which ones and to what extent. Trends Cogn Sci 7:153–156CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Tomasello M, Call J, Hare B (2003b) Chimpanzees versus humans: it’s not that simple. Trends Cogn Sci 7:239–240CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary AnthropologyLeipzigGermany

Personalised recommendations