Effect of ripening time on bacteriological and physicochemical goat milk cheese characteristics

  • Rodrigo V. Moreira
  • Marion P. Costa
  • Beatriz S. Frasao
  • Vivian S. Sobral
  • Claudius C. Cabral
  • Bruna L. Rodrigues
  • Sérgio B. Mano
  • Carlos A. Conte-JuniorEmail author


Cheese ripening involves lactose metabolism, lipolysis and proteolysis, which are affected by many factors. The aim of this study was to assess changes due to ripening (90 days) of goat milk cheese through bacteriological and physicochemical analysis in order to verify if, at the end of ripening period, this cheese could be considered “lactose-free”. Three batches of the goat milk cheese were manufactured and ripened at 10 °C and 80% relative humidity for 90 days. Titratable acidity increased by about 59 °D due to carbohydrate degradation and organic acid production. However, pH (5.31–5.25) remained constant. Lactococcus was the dominant cheese microbiota, acting in the fermentation of lactose (1.17–0.06 mg/g) and lactic acid production (5.49–s10.01 mg/g). Thus, ripening time was decisive for bacteriological and physicochemical goat milk cheese characteristics.


Growth modeling Lactose-free Lactic acid Lactococcus Organic acids 



The authors thank the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (process no. E-26/201.185/2014 and E-26/010.001.911/2015, FAPERJ, Brazil) and the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (process no. 311361/2013-7, 400136/2014-7 and 166186/2015-5, 439731/2016-0 and 150200/2017-0 CNPq, Brazil). The authors also thank the Rancho dos Sonhos Company.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

10068_2019_682_MOESM1_ESM.docx (32 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 31 kb)


  1. AOAC. Official methods of analysis of AOAC. 18th edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg (2012)Google Scholar
  2. APHA. In: Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. Frances PD, Keith I (eds). Washington, DC (2001)Google Scholar
  3. Atasoy AF, Türkoǧlu H. Lipolysis in Urfa cheese produced from raw and pasteurized goats’ and cows’ milk with mesophilic or thermophilic cultures during ripening. Food Chem. 115: 71-78 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranyi J, Roberts TA. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 23: 277-294 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bezerra TKA, Arcanjo NMO, Garcia EFG, Gomes AMP, Queiroga RCRE, Souza EL, Madruga MS. Effect of supplementation with probiotic lactic acid bacteria, separately or combined, on acid and sugar production in goat “coalho” cheese. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 75: 710-718 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boutoial K, García V, Rovira S, Ferrandini E, Abdelkhalek O, López MB. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties. J. Dairy Res. 80, 448-456 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brazil. Ministry of Agriculture. Normative Instruction No. 37 of October 31, 2000. Technical regulation of production, identity and quality of goat’s milk. Official Journal of the Union, Brasilia, p. 23, Section 1 (2000) Available from:
  8. BRAZIL. Ministry of Health - ANVISA. Resolution of the Collegiate Board - RDC No. 135, of February 8, 2017. Amends Ordinance SVS / MS No. 29 of January 13, 1998, which approves the technical regulation for special purpose foods, to provide for lactose-restricted diets. Official Gazette, Brasília, DF, No. 29 (2017). Available from:
  9. Commission Directive 2006/141/EC of 22 December. Official Journal of the European Union, 1-31. 20/12/2006. L 401 (2006)Google Scholar
  10. Costa M, Conte-Junior C. Chromatographic methods for the determination of carbohydrates and organic acids in foods of animal origin. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 14:586-600 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Costa M, Conte-Junior C. Analytical Applications of Evaporative Light Scattering Detection for Determination of Carbohydrates and Organic Acids in Food. In book: Reference Module in Food Science. (2017)Google Scholar
  12. Costa M, Frasao B, Lima BC, Leal B, Conte-Junior C. Simultaneous analysis of carbohydrates and organic acids by HPLC-DAD-RI for monitoring goat’s milk yogurts fermentation. Talanta. 152: 162-170 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Costa M, Silva HLA, Balthazar CF, Franco RM, Cortez MAS. Economic performance and sensory analysis of probiotic “Minas Frescal” cheese produced using bovine and caprine milk. Enciclopédia Bioesfera 9: 2306-2314 (2013)Google Scholar
  14. Delgado FJ, González-Crespo J, Cava R, Ramírez R. Free fatty acids and oxidative changes of a raw goat milk cheese through maturation. J. Food Sci. 76: C669-C673 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). Scientific opinion on lactose thresholds in lactose intolerance and galactosaemia. EFSA J. 8(9): 1777 (2010) Available online:
  16. FAO. FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, (2016)
  17. FIL-IDF. Milk and milk products. Preparation of test samples and dilutions for microbiological examination. Standard 122B. Int. Dairy F., Brussels, Belgium (1992)Google Scholar
  18. García V, Rovira S, Boutoial K, Ferrandini E, López MB. Physicochemical, microbiological, textural and sensory changes during the ripening of pasteurized goat milk cheese made with plant coagulant (Cynara scolymus). Int. J. Dairy Technol. 69: 96-102 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Guerzoni ME, Vannini L, Lopez CC, Lanciotti R, Suzzi G, Gianotti A. Effect of high pressure homogenization on microbial and chemico-physical characteristics of goat cheeses. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 851-862 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kondyli E, Pappa EC, Svarnas C. Ripening changes of the chemical composition, proteolysis, volatile fraction and organoleptic characteristics of a white-brined goat milk cheese. Small Rumin. Res. 145: 1-6 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mcauley CM, Britz ML, Gobius KS, Craven HM. Prevalence, seasonality, and growth of enterococci in raw and pasteurized milk in Victoria, Australia. J. Dairy Sci. 98: 8348-8358 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McSweeney PLH. Biochemistry of cheese ripening. Int. J. Dairy Technol. 57: 127-144 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McSweeney PLH, Sousa MJ. Biochemical pathways for the production of flavour compounds in cheese during ripening: a review. Lait. 80: 293–324 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Miloradovic ZN, Macej OD, Kljajevic NV, Jovanovic ST, Vucic TR, Zdravkovic IR. The effect of heat treatment of caprine milk on the composition of cheese whey. Int. Dairy J. 58: 39-42 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Monteiro MLG, Mársico ET, Teixeira CE, Mano SB, Conte-Junior CA, Vital HC. Validade comercial de filés de Tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus) resfriados embalados em atmosfera modificada e irradiados. Ciência Rural 42: 737-743 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oliszewski R, Wolf IV, Bergamini CV, Candioti M, Perotti M. Influence of autochthonous adjunct cultures on ripening parameters of Argentinean goat’ s milk cheeses. J Sci Food Agric. 93: 2730-2742 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Park YW, Juárez M, Ramos M, Haenlein GFW. Physico-chemical characteristics on goat and sheep milk, Small Rumin. Res. 68: 88-113 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Porcellato D, Johnson ME, Houck K, Skeie SB, Mills DA, Kalanetra KM, Steele JL. Potential of Lactobacillus curvatus LFC1 to produce slits in Cheddar cheese. Food Microbiol. 49: 65-73 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Sert D, Akin N, Aktumsek A. Lipolysis in Tulum cheese produced from raw and pasteurized goats’ milk during ripening. Small Rumin. Res. 121: 351-360 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Skeie SB. Quality aspects of goat milk for cheese production in Norway: a review. Small Rumin. Res. 122: 10-17 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Spinnler HE. Surface mould-ripened cheeses. 4rd ed. Vol 2, pp. 911-928. In: Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology. Fox P, Mc Sweeney P, Cogan T, Guinee T (eds). Elsevier, London (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tabet E, Mangia NP, Mouannes E, Hassoun G, Helal Z, Deiana P. Characterization of goat milk from Lebanese Baladi breed and his suitability for setting up a ripened cheese using a selected starter culture. Small Rumin. Res. 140: 13-17. (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tofalo R, Schirone M, Fasoli G, Perpetuini G, Patrignani F, Manetta AC, Lanciotti R, Corsetti A, Martino G, Suzzi G. Influence of pig rennet on proteolysis, organic acids content and microbiota of Pecorino di Farindola, a traditional Italian ewe’s raw milk cheese. Food Chem. 175: 121-127 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rodrigo V. Moreira
    • 1
  • Marion P. Costa
    • 2
  • Beatriz S. Frasao
    • 1
  • Vivian S. Sobral
    • 1
  • Claudius C. Cabral
    • 1
  • Bruna L. Rodrigues
    • 1
  • Sérgio B. Mano
    • 1
  • Carlos A. Conte-Junior
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Food Technology, Faculdade de VeterináriaUniversidade Federal FluminenseNiteróiBrazil
  2. 2.Laboratório de Inspeção e Tecnologia de Leites e Derivados Lácteos (LaITLácteos), Escola de Medicina VeterináriaUniversidade Federal da BahiaOndina, SalvadorBrazil
  3. 3.Food Science Program, Instituto de QuímicaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations