Chapatti sensory and textural quality in relation to whole meal flour and dough characteristics

  • Salman KhurshidEmail author
  • Saqib Arif
  • Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal
  • Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar
  • Shahid Yousaf


Current study was designed to evaluate sensory and textural quality characteristics of chapatti, a commonly consumed flat bread in South-Asia in relation to flour quality parameters. Whole meals of cultivars and commercial wheat samples were analysed for physicochemical, pasting, dough and baking properties. Flours contained medium protein contents (12.4–13.7%) and possessed medium to high gluten strength (51–88). Pasting and dough properties were also suitable for chapatti making. Chapatti sensory attributes were strongly related to gluten content (r = −0.915) and strength (r = 0.851). Moderate relationships were also observed with protein (r = −0.665), falling number (r = −0.750), water absorption (r = −0.623) and maximum viscosity (r = −0.745) of whole meal flours. Tearing force for chapatti was largely related to gluten content (r = −0.893) and dough development time (r = 0.847) but also showed reasonable relationships with gluten index (r = 0.643), ash (r = 0.640), falling number (r = −0.681), maximum (r = −0.743) and breakdown (r = −0.650) viscosities. The information would be useful for household and commercial semi-mechanical chapatti-making process.


Wheat Cultivar Sensory Chapatti Dough 



Our gratitude is extended to Mr. Amin and Shakeel, Scientific Assistant at FQSRI for their technical assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. AACC. Approved methods of AACC.10th ed. Method 44-15A, 38-12, 08-01, 56-81B, 54-24, and 22-10. American Association of Cereal Chemists, St. Paul, MN, USA (2000)Google Scholar
  2. Dhaliwal YS, Hatcher DW, Sekhon KS, Kruger JE. Methodology for preparation and testing of chapattis produced from different classes of Canadian wheat. Food Res. Int. 29: 163-168 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Faridi HA, Finney PL, Rubenthalar GL. Micro baking evaluation of some US wheat classes for suitability in Iranian bread. Cereal Chem. 58: 428-432 (1981)Google Scholar
  4. Huebner FR, Nelsen TC, Bietz JA. Differences among gliadins from spring and winter wheat cultivars. Cereal Chem. 72: 341-343(1995)Google Scholar
  5. Jacobs Jr DR., Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Folsom AR. Whole-grain intake may reduce the risk of ischemic heart disease death in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68: 248-257(1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chun TJ, Bo HR, Ying DZ, Xun WY. The variation and stability analysis of wheat dough stability time. Agric. Sci. China 62: 143-149 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kundu M, Khatkar BS, Gulia N. Assessment of chapatti quality of wheat varieties based on physicochemical, rheological and sensory traits. Food Chem. 226: 95-101 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Mehfooz T, Ali TM, Arif S, Hasnain A. Effect of barley husk addition on rheological, textural, thermal and sensory characteristics of traditional flat bread (chapatti). J. Cereal Sci. 79: 376-382 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Mikhaylenko GG, Czuchajowska Z, Baik BK, Kidwell KK. Environmental influences on flour composition, dough rheology, and baking quality of spring wheat. Cereal Chem. 77: 507-511 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Navnidhi, Panghal A, Singh N, Khatkar BS. Quality assessment of Indian wheat varieties for steam leavened flat bread (chapatti). Ann. Agri-Bio Res. 14: 195-200 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. Panghal A, Chhikara N, Khatkar BS. Characterisation of Indian wheat varieties for chapatti (flat bread) quality. J. Saudi Soc. Agric. Sci. (2017).Google Scholar
  12. Peterson CJ, Graybosch RA, Baenziger PS, Grombacher AW. Genotype and environment effects on quality characteristics of hard red winter wheat. Crop Sci. 32: 98-103 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Rehman S, Paterson A, Piggott JR. Chapatti quality from British wheat cultivar flours. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 40: 775-784 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Safdar MN, Naseem K, Siddiqui N, Amjad M, Hameed T, Khalil S. Quality evaluation of different wheat varieties for the production of unleavened flat bread (Chapatti). Pak. J. Nutr. 8: 1773-1778 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schofield JD. Wheat protein: Structure and functionality in milling and breadmaking. pp. 73-106. In: Wheat. Bushuk W and Rasper VF (eds). Springer, Bostan, MA (1994)Google Scholar
  16. Sharma A, Rao VS, Bhagwat SG, Bapat MM. Elongation curve for evaluating chapati making quality of whole wheat flour and its relation with other quality parameters. J. Food Sci. Tech. Mys. 41: 160-164 (2004)Google Scholar
  17. Slavin J, Marquart L, Jacobs Jr D. Consumption of whole-grain foods and decreased risk of cancer: proposed mechanisms. Cereal Foods World 45: 54-58 (2000)Google Scholar
  18. Thompson LU. Antioxidants and hormone‐mediated health benefits of whole grains. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 34: 473-497 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Zhu J, Khan K. Effects of genotype and environment on glutenin polymers and breadmaking quality. Cereal Chem. 78: 125-130 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Salman Khurshid
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saqib Arif
    • 1
  • Hafiza Mehwish Iqbal
    • 1
  • Qurrat Ul Ain Akbar
    • 1
  • Shahid Yousaf
    • 1
  1. 1.Food Quality and Safety Research Institute, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, University CampusKarachiPakistan

Personalised recommendations