A human–food web–animal interface on the prevalence of food-borne pathogens (Clostridia and Enterococcus) in mixed veterinary farms
In the present work, we addressed the impact of a human–food web–animal interface on the prevalence of food-borne pathogens in mixed farms of Tamil Nadu, India. We have isolated and identified six strains of Clostridium sp. and five strains of Enterococcus sp. from food and animal sources disposed near to the veterinary and poultry farms. Phylogenetic relationships of these strains were inferred from their homologies in 16S rDNA sequences and rRNA secondary structures. The strain PCP07 was taxonomically equivalent to C. botulinum confirmed by neurotoxin-specific PCR primers, followed by mouse bioassay. Other Clostridial and Enterococcal isolates have shown a phylogenetic similarity to the C. bifermentans and E. durans isolated from veterinary farms, respectively. Results of our study revealed that a human–food web–animal interface has influenced the disease incidence and prevalence of these isolates in the poultry to veterinary farms, where human food acted as a likely transmittance vehicle for their infections.
KeywordsAvian botulism Poultry disease Molecular diagnosis Phylogeny Clostridium Enterococcus
This work was financially supported by Life Science Research Board-Defense Research and Development Organization, New Delhi, India (No. DLS/81/48222/LSRB-249/BTB/2012).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Appendix B. Mouse bioassay (MP4 101571 kb)
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