Hypoglycemic effect of whole grain diet in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice by activating PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathways
Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), characterized by abnormal blood glucose level, is a metabolic disease caused by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Previous studies have reported that whole grain intake alleviated various metabolic syndromes. Here, the hypoglycemic effect of whole grain diet (WGD) on type II diabetes was investigated in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. WGD improved the regulation of fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels and reduced weight gain and lipid accumulation. On the molecular level, WGD up-regulated the glucose transporter type 4 and stimulated the insulin receptor substrate 1/phosphoinositide 3-kinase ((PI3K)/Akt) pathway. WGD stimulated the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/p38/Acetyl-CoA carboxylate pathway related to lipid metabolism and glucose uptake, and down-regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Taken together, whole grains can be employed as functional food ingredients to alleviate T2DM by enhancing the PI3K/Akt and AMPK pathways.
KeywordsAMPK Diabetes Glucose uptake PI3K/Akt pathway Whole grains
We thank Prof. Jae-Kwon Lee (Kyunggi University, Suwon, Korea) for kindly supplying the mixture of whole grains. This work was supported by Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (IPET) through High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, funded by Ministry of Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (315071-03).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Giacco R, Costabile G, Della Pepa G, Anniballi G, Griffo E, Mangione A, Cipriano P, Viscovo D, Clemente G, Landberg R. A whole-grain cereal-based diet lowers postprandial plasma insulin and triglyceride levels in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Nutr. Metab. Cardiovasc. Dis. 24: 837–844 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kozuka C, Yabiku K, Sunagawa S, Ueda R, Taira S, Ohshiro H, Ikema T, Yamakawa K, Higa M, Tanaka H, Takayama C, Matsushita M, Oyadomari S, Shimabukuro M, Masuzaki H. Brown rice and its component, γ-oryzanol, attenuate the preference for high-fat diet by decreasing hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice. Diabetes 61: 3084–3093 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar