Optimization of spray drying parameters and food additives to reduce glycation using response surface methodology in powdered infant formulas
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The heat-based spray drying process generating the highest level of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the infant formula processing was set as a control point from which the levels of AGE markers, N-carboxymethyllysine, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and fluorescence intensity, can be mitigated. We optimized the parameters, including inlet temperature, feeding rate, and aspirator rate during spray drying, and alternatively optimized food additives, including pyridoxine hydrochloride, dl-α-tocopheryl acetate, and l-carnitine. Using response surface methodology, the optimal condition based on our experimental condition for the inlet temperature, pump rate, and aspirator rate were 148.7 °C, 342.4 mL/h and 28.6 m3/h, respectively, and the optimal conditions of pyridoxine hydrochloride, dl-α-tocopheryl acetate and l-carnitine were 0.99 mg/100 g dry mass (DM), 8 mg/100 g DM and 20.4 mg/100 g DM, respectively. These results suggest that AGEs can be mitigated by controlling the parameters and optimizing the addition of food additives during the spray-drying process.
KeywordsGlycation Infant formula Spray drying Response surface methodology Advanced glycation end-products
This work was supported by the High Value-added Food Technology Development Program (314046-03-HD040), Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (iPET), a Korea University Grant (K1702311), and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology for BK21 PLUS, Korea University. Additionally, the authors thank the Korea University-CJ Food Safety Center (Seoul, South Korea) for providing the equipment and facilities.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors of this study has any financial interest or conflict with industries or parties.
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