Advertisement

Enzymatic glycerolysis–interesterification of palm stearin–olein blend for synthesis structured lipid containing high mono- and diacylglycerol

  • Edy Subroto
  • Supriyanto
  • Tyas Utami
  • Chusnul Hidayat
Article
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

The objective of this research was to evaluate enzymatic glycerolysis–interesterification to synthesize structured lipids (SLs) containing high monoacylglycerol (MAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) from a palm stearin–olein blend (PS–PO blend). The results showed that the optimum conditions for the solvent to fat ratio, glycerol to fat ratio, and enzyme concentration were 2:1 (v/w), 1.5:1, and 15% (w/w), respectively. The conversion rate of MAG and DAG decreased at a high glycerol to fat ratio, low solvent to fat ratio, and high enzyme concentration due to an increase in viscosity and low agitation effectiveness. The emulsion capacity and stability of the SLs were 60.19% and 96.80%, respectively. The hardness of the SLs increased about 3.1-fold. The MAG, DAG, and triacylglycerol conversion rates were 0.45, 0.48, and 1.02%/h, respectively. Thus, glycerolysis–interesterification of a PS–PO blend increased DAG and MAG concentrations and further improved the hardness, emulsion capacity, and emulsion stability of the SLs.

Keywords

Glycerolysis–interesterification Diacylglycerol Monoacylglycerol Structured lipid Palm stearin–olein blend 

References

  1. Abigor RD, Marmer WN, Foglia TA, Jones KC, DiCiccio RJ, Ashby R, Uadia PO. Production of cocoa butter-like fats by the lipase-catalyzed interesterification of palm oil and hydrogenated soybean oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80: 1193–1196 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aini IN, Miskandar MS. Utilization of palm oil and palm products in shortenings and margarines. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109: 422–432 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AOCS. Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. American Oil Chemist’s Society Press, Champaign, IL, USA (2004)Google Scholar
  4. AOCS. Official and Tentative Methods of the American Oil Chemist’s Society, 7th Ed. American Oil Chemist’s Society Press, Champaign, IL, USA (1997)Google Scholar
  5. Biswas N, Cheow YL, Tan CP, Siow LF. Physical, rheological and sensorial properties, and bloom formation of dark chocolate made with cocoa butter substitute (CBS). LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 82: 420–428 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biswas N, Cheow YL, Tan CP, Siow LF. Blending of palm mid-fraction, refined bleached deodorized palm kernel oil or palm stearin for cocoa butter alternative. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 93: 1415–1427 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bornscheuer UT. Lipase-catalyzed syntheses of monoacylglycerols. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 17: 578–586 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Byun H-G, Eom T-K, Jung W-K, Kim S-K. Lipase catalyzed production of MAG by the esterification of fish oil FA with glycerol. Biotechnol. Bioprocess Eng. 1: 491–496 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cano-Medina A, Jiménez-Islas H, Dendooven L, Herrera RP, González-Alatorre G, Escamilla-Silva EM. Emulsifying and foaming capacity and emulsion and foam stability of sesame protein concentrates. Food Res. Int. 44: 684–692 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chen B, Yin C, Cheng Y, Li W, Cao ZA, Tan T. Using silk woven fabric as support for lipase immobilization: The effect of surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity on enzymatic activity and stability. Biomass and Bioenergy. 39: 59–66 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheong LZ, Tan CP, Long K, Affandi Yusoff MS, Arifin N, Lo SK, Lai OM. Production of a diacylglycerol-enriched palm olein using lipase-catalyzed partial hydrolysis: Optimization using response surface methodology. Food Chem. 105: 1614–1622 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feltes MMC, de Oliveira D, Block JM, Ninow JL. The production, benefits, and applications of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols of nutritional interest. Food Bioprocess Technol. 6: 17–35 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fuchs B, Süß R, Teuber K, Eibisch M, Schiller J. Lipid analysis by thin-layer chromatography—A review of the current state. J. Chromatogr. A. 1218: 2754–2774 (2011)CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Furlán LTR, Baracco Y, Lecot J, Zaritzky N, Campderrós ME. Influence of hydrogenated oil as cocoa butter replacers in the development of sugar-free compound chocolates: Use of inulin as stabilizing agent. Food Chem. 217: 637–647 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hilmanto H, Hidayat C, Hastuti P. Surface modification of macroporous matrix for immobilization of lipase for fructose oleic ester synthesis. Bull. Chem. React. Eng. Catal. 11: 339–345 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jahurul MHA, Zaidul ISM, Norulaini NAN, Sahena F, Jinap S, Azmir J, Sharif KM, Mohd Omar AK. Cocoa butter fats and possibilities of substitution in food products concerning cocoa varieties, alternative sources, extraction methods, composition, and characteristics. J. Food Eng. 117: 467–476 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kirk O, Björkling F, Godtfredsen SE, Larsen TO. Fatty acid specificity in lipase-catalyzed synthesis of glucoside esters. Biocatal. Biotransformation 6: 127–134 (1992)Google Scholar
  18. Krüger RL, Valério A, Balen M, Ninow JL, Oliveira JV, de Oliveira D, Corazza ML. Improvement of mono and diacylglycerol production via enzymatic glycerolysis in tert-butanol system. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 112: 921–927 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lo SK, Tan CP, Long K, Yusoff MSA, Lai OM. Diacylglycerol oil-properties, processes and products: A review. Food Bioprocess Technol. 1: 223–233 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Losada-Barreiro S, Sanchez-Paz V, Bravo-Diaz C. Effects of emulsifier hydrophile-lipophile balance and emulsifier concentration on the distributions of gallic acid, propyl gallat, and a-tocopherol in corn oil emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 389: 1–9 (2013)CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the follin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265–275 (1951)PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. Naik MK, Naik SN, Mohanty S. Enzymatic glycerolysis for conversion of sunflower oil to food based emulsifiers. Catal. Today. 237: 145–149 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Oliveira PD, Rodrigues AMC, Bezerra C V., Silva LHM. Chemical interesterification of blends with palm stearin and patawa oil. Food Chem. 215: 369–376 (2017)CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Ornla-ied P, Sonwai S, Lertthirasuntorn S. Trans-free margarine fat produced using enzymatic interesterification of rice bran oil and hard palm stearin. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 25: 673–680 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Osborn HT, Akoh CC. Structured lipids—novel fats with medical, nutraceutical, and food applications. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 1: 93–103 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saberi AH, Kee BB, Oi-Ming L, Miskandar MS. Physico-chemical properties of various palm-based diacylglycerol oils in comparison with their corresponding palm-based oils. Food Chem. 127: 1031–1038 (2011)CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Soares FASDM, Claro da Silva R, Caroline Guimarães da Silva K, Bertolessi Lourenço M, Ferreira Soares D, Antonio Gioielli L (2009) Effects of chemical interesterification on physicochemical properties of blends of palm stearin and palm olein. Food Res. Int. 42: 1287–1294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sonwai S, Kaphueakngam P, Flood A. Blending of mango kernel fat and palm oil mid-fraction to obtain cocoa butter equivalent. J. Food Sci. Technol. 51: 2357–2369 (2012)CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang W, Li T, Ning Z, Wang Y, Yang B, Yang X. Production of extremely pure diacylglycerol from soybean oil by lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 49: 192–196 (2011)CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Zhang Z, Wang Y, Ma X, Wang E, Liu M, Yan R. Characterisation and oxidation stability of monoacylglycerols from partially hydrogenated corn oil. Food Chem. 173: 70–79 (2014)CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edy Subroto
    • 1
  • Supriyanto
    • 1
  • Tyas Utami
    • 1
  • Chusnul Hidayat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural TechnologyUniversitas Gadjah MadaYogyakartaIndonesia

Personalised recommendations