Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 28, Issue 1, pp 215–224 | Cite as

Comparative study on anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of hydroponic ginseng and soil-cultured ginseng

  • Ji Eun Hwang
  • Dong Hwa Suh
  • Kee-Tae Kim
  • Hyun-Dong PaikEmail author


Hydroponic ginseng (HPG) and soil-cultured ginseng (SCG) were extracted in 70% methanol to quantify relative content of 8 ginsenosides and polyphenolic compounds, and flavonoids to compare their antioxidative effects. Level of nitric oxide and inflammatory targets produced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were measured. 2-year-old HPG shoots contained highest levels of ginsenoside Rb2, Rb3, Rd, Re, and F1. Total polyphenol content was highest in shoots of HPG, followed by roots of HPG and SCG. HPG shoots had high radical scavenging activity and an elevated ability to inhibit linoleic acid oxidation. 2-year-old HPG shoots reduced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells by 47%, whereas 6-year-old SCG roots reduced it by only 21%. HPG also significantly lowered mRNA expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, as determined by RT-PCR, compared to SCGs. Therefore, HPG may have potential for utilization as an alternative to SCG, because of superior antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.


Hydroponic ginseng Panax ginseng Flavonoid Antioxidative effect Anti-inflammatory effect 



This research was supported by the Priority Research Centers Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NFR) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (Grant Number: 2009-0093824).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Baek KS, Yi YS, Son YJ, Yoo S, Sung NY, Kim Y, Hong S, Aravinthan A, Kim JH, Cho JY. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of Korean Red Ginseng-derived components. J. Ginseng Res. 40: 437–444 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bak MJ, Hong SG, Lee JW, Jeong WS. Red ginseng marc oil inhibits iNOS and COX-2 via NFκB and p38 pathways in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Molecules 17: 13769–13786 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cha BJ, Park JH, Shrestha S, Baek NI, Lee SM, Lee TH, Kim J, Kim GS, Kim SY, Lee DY. Glycosyl glycerides from hydroponic Panax ginseng inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. J. Ginseng Res. 39: 162–168 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chung IM, Lim JJ, Ahn MS, Jeong HN, An TJ, Kim SH. Comparative phenolic compound profiles and antioxidative activity of the fruit, leaves, and roots of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) according to cultivation years. J. Ginseng Res. 40: 68–75 (2016a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chung SI, Nam SJ, Xu M, Kang MY, Lee SC. Aged ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) reduces blood glucose levels and improves lipid metabolism in high fat diet-fed mice. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 25: 267–273 (2016b).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Oliveira Macêdo LAR, de Oliveira Júnior RG, Souza GR, de Oliveira AP, de Lavor ÉM, e Silva MG, Pacheco AGM, de Menezes IRA, Coutinho HDM, do Ó Pessoa Pessoa C, da Costa MP, da Silva Almeida JRG. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities and evaluation of cytotoxicity of the fractions obtained from Selaginella convoluta (Arn.) Spring (Selaginellaceae). Biotechnol. Biotechnol. Equip. 32(2): 506–512 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Doumbou CL, Hamby Salove MK, Crawford DL, Beaulieu C. Actinomycetes, promising tools to control plant diseases and to promote plant growth. Phytoprotection 82(3):85–102 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ekinci-Akdemir FN, Gülçin I, Gürsul C, Alwasel SH, Bayir Y. Effect of p-coumaric acid against oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in brain tissue of rats. J. Anim. Plant Sci. 27(5):1560–1564 (2017).Google Scholar
  9. Eom SJ, Hwang JE, Kim K-T, Paik H-D. Increased antioxidative and nitric oxide scavenging activity of ginseng marc fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM11614P. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 27: 185–191 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eom SJ, Hwang JE, Kim HS, Kim K-T, Paik H-D. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of ginseng extract bioconverted by Leuconostoc mesenteroides KCCM 12010P isolated from kimchi. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 53: 1331–1337 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gulcin I. Antioxidant activity of food constituents: an overview. Arch. Toxicol. 86: 345–391 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Han JS, Tak HS, Lee GS, Kim JS, Choi JE. Comparison of ginsenoside content according to age and diameter in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer cultivated by direct seeding. Korean Soc. Med. Crop. Sci. 21: 184–190 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hong H, Sim EM, Kim K, Rho J, Rhee YK, Cho C. Comparison of preparation methods for the quantification of ginsenosides in raw Korean Ginseng. Food. Sci. Biotechnol. 18(2):565–569 (2009).Google Scholar
  14. Huang SS, Su SY, Chang JS, Lin HJ, Wu WT, Deng JS, Huang GJ. Antioxidants, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects of the aqueous extracts from Glycine species and its bioactive compounds. Bot. Stud. 57: 38 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kim JH, Baek EJ, Lee EJ, Yeom MH, Park JS, Lee KW, Kang NJ. Ginsenoside F1 attenuates hyperpigmentation in B16F10 melanoma cells by inducing dendrite retraction and activating Rho signaling. Exp. Dermatol. 24:150–152 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim GS, Hyun DY, Kim YO, Lee SE, Kwon H, Cha SW, Park CB, Kim YB. Investigation of ginsenosides in different parts of Panax ginseng cultured by hydroponics. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 28(2): 216–226 (2010).Google Scholar
  17. Kim YJ, Joo SC, Shi J, Hu C, Quan S, Hu J, Sukweenadhi J, Mohanan P, Yang DC, Zhang D. Metabolic dynamics and physiological adaptation of Panax ginseng during development. Plant Cell. Rep. 37: 393–410 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Köksal E, Bursal E, Gülçin İ, Korkmaz M, Çağlayan C, Gören AC, Alwasel SH. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of Turkish thyme (Thymus vulgaris) monitored by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Int. J. Food Prop. 20: 514–525 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee YM, Yoon H, Park HM, Song BC, Yeum KJ. Implications of red Panax ginseng in oxidative stress associated chronic diseases. J. Ginseng Res. 41: 113–119 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lu J, Li J, Wang S, Yao L, Liang W, Wang J, Gao W. Advances in ginsenoside biosynthesis and metabolic regulation. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 65: 514–522 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Ginseng statistics report (2017). Available from: Accessed 2017.
  22. Noh HH, Lee JY, Park HK, Jeong HR, Lee JW, Jin MJ, Choi H, Yun SS, Kyung KS. Monitoring and safety assessment of pesticide residues in ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) from traditional markets. Korean J. Pestic. Sci. 20: 23–29 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Padhi EMT, Liu R, Hernandez M, Tsao R, Ramdath DD. Total polyphenol content, carotenoid, tocopherol and fatty acid composition of commonly consumed Canadian pulses and their contribution to antioxidant activity. J. Funct. Food. 38: 602–611 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Park HM, Kim SJ, Mun AR, Go HK, Kim GB, Kim SZ, Jang SI, Lee SJ, Kim JS, Kang HS. Korean red ginseng and its primary ginsenosides inhibit ethanol-induced oxidative injury by suppression of the MAPK pathway in TIB-73 cells. J. Ethnopharmacol. 141(3):1071–76 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Park JH. Antioxidant activities in shoots and roots of hydroponic cultured ginseng. J. App. Ori. Med. 12(2):21–26 (2012).Google Scholar
  26. Shi W, Wang Y, Li J, Zhang H, Ding L. Investigation of ginsenosides in different parts and ages of Panax ginseng. Food Chem. 102: 664–668 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Siraj FM, Kim YJ, Natarajan S, Jung SK, Yang DU, Yang DC. Ginseng and obesity: observations from assorted perspectives. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 23: 1007–1016 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wang M, Chen Y, Xion Z, Yu S, Zhou B, Ling Y, Zheng Z, Shi G, Wu Y, Qian X. Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits free fatty acids-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mol. Med. Rep. 16: 9165–9172 (2017a).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang Y, Liu X, Tan W, Liu W, Wang W. GW28-e0602 Protective effects of ginsenoside re on macrophages RAW 264.7 cells injury induced by doxorubicin. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 70(16):C63 (2017b). 10.1016/j.jacc.2017.07.214.Google Scholar
  30. Ye R, Yang Q, Kong X, Han J, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Li P, Liu J, Shi M, Xiong L, Zhao G. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates early oxidative damage and sequential inflammatory response after transient focal ischemia in rats. Neurochem. Int. 58: 391–398 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Young R, Bush SJ, Lefevre L, McCulloch MEB, Lisowski ZM, Muriuki C, Waddell LA, Sauter KA, Pridans C, Clark EL, Hume DA. Species-specific transcriptional regulation of genes involved in nitric oxide production and arginine metabolism in macrophages. ImmunoHorizons 2: 27–37 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Taha AA, Ying Y, Li X, Chen X, Ma C. Subcritical water extraction of bioactive components from ginseng roots (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey). Ind. Crop. Prod. 117: 118–127 (2018).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018
corrected publication September 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal ResourcesKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Bio/Molecular Informatics CenterKonkuk UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations