Effects of milling on aromatics, lipophilic phytonutrients, and fatty acids in unprocessed white rice of scented rice ‘Cheonjihyang-1-se’
- 109 Downloads
To understand effects of milling, scented rice ‘Cheonjihyang-1-se’ was milled from 10 to 140 s and changes in volatiles, phytonutrients, and fatty acids were evaluated. Among 43 identified odor-active compounds, four volatiles, including hexan-3-one, exhibited decreases of up to 78%, while four others including (E)-non-2-enal, increased following milling. Levels of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, the most distinctive popcorn-flavoring compound in scented rice, were not affected by the degree of milling (DM). Partial least squares discriminant analyses of volatiles were able to differentiate white rice according to the DM. Benzene and 2-pentylfuran showed the highest variable importance in projection scores, which could be applied in estimating the DM of rice. Milling significantly decreased tocopherols, tocotrienols, squalene, phytosterols contents and oleic acid composition, while palmitic acid composition was increased. These results suggest milling-dependent variations in phytonutrient levels and lipid composition, as well as changes in aroma and subsequent market quality, in ‘Cheonjihyang-1-se’ rice.
Keywords2-acetyl-1-pyrroline Flavor Headspace Solid phase microextraction Volatile
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Planning and Evaluation for Technology in Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (IPET) through the High Value-added Food Technology Development Program, funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) (115011-03-1-HD030) and a Soonchunhyang University Research Grant.
- 2.Bhattacharya KR. Rice Quality: A Guide to Rice Properties and Analysis. Elsevier Science (2011)Google Scholar
- 5.Yadav BK, Jindal, V.K. Monitoring milling quality of rice by image analysis. Comput. Electron. Agr. 33: 19–33 (2001)Google Scholar
- 15.Kuaprasert B, Silprasit K, Horata N, Khunrae P, Wongpanya R, Boonyalai N, Vanavichit A, Choowongkomon K. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (OsBADH2), a protein involved in jasmine aroma, from Thai fragrant rice (Oryza sativa L.). Acta Cryst. F67: 1221–1223 (2011)Google Scholar
- 17.Kim J-S, Park O-S, Ahn S-N, Lee J-R, Gwag J-G, Kim T-S, Lee S-Y. Quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline from the aroma rice germplasm by gas chromatography. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 40: 516–521 (2008)Google Scholar
- 19.Nijssen LM, Ingen-Visscher v, Donders JJH, VCF volatile compounds in food: database version 16.3, Triskelion (2017)Google Scholar
- 21.Cho KS, Kim HJ, Moon SM, Kang JH, Lee YS. Optimization of one-step extraction/methylation method for analysis of fatty acid composition in brown rice. Kor. J. Crop Sci. 51: 89–94 (2006)Google Scholar
- 22.IBM Corp., IBM SPSS statistics for Windows, Version 22.0, IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA (2013)Google Scholar
- 27.Tsugita T, Kurata T, Kato H. Studies on the volatile components of rice and rice bran. III. Volatile components after cooking rice milled to different degrees. Agric. Biol. Chem. 44: 835–840 (1980)Google Scholar