Advertisement

Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 26, Issue 5, pp 1227–1233 | Cite as

Enhancing the hydrolysis of corn starch using optimal amylases in a high-adjunct-ratio malt mashing process

  • Linjiang Zhu
  • Ting Ma
  • Yiming Mei
  • Qi LiEmail author
Article
  • 230 Downloads

Abstract

Incompletely degraded corn starch particles often seriously inhibit wort filtration and decrease a brewery’s beer productivity. Herein, the inhibiting factors of starch hydrolysis and the application of amylases to degrade residual starch were evaluated. The results showed that resistant starch and the amylopectin of corn starch were not the inhibiting factors. Almost all residual starch left in the spent grain layer was proved to be degradable by amylases. Mesophilic α-amylase was selected through a comparison of nine amylases, which increased the wort filtration rate by 44%. However, >6% of corn starch was still left after mashing when a high ratio of corn starch to water (>1:3.5) was used in liquefaction. The low water content in liquefaction was proved to be the key inhibiting factor. Considering the existing equipment and brewing technology, the application of mesophilic α-amylases should be a simple and effective method for enhancing the hydrolysis of corn starch and accelerating the wort lautering process during a high-adjunct-ratio beer brewing process.

Keywords

Amylase Beer brewing Corn starch High-gravity fermentation Low-water-content liquefaction 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31601445, 31571942 and 31601558), the National High Technology Research Program of China (2013AA102106), the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and Program of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities (No. 111-2-06).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Devantier R, Pedersen S, Olsson L. Characterization of very high gravity ethanol fermentation of corn mash. Effect of glucoamylase dosage, pre-saccharification and yeast strain. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 68:622–629 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Van der Veen M, Veelaert S, Van der Goot A, Boom R. Starch hydrolysis under low water conditions: a conceptual process design. J. Food Eng. 75:178–186 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lloyd W. Adjuncts. J. I. Brewing 92:336–345 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kang H, Wu T, Li S, Zheng C. Study on production technology of beer with more adjuvants. Food Sci. (In Chinese) 30:54–57 (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Puligundla P, Smogrovicova D, Obulam VS, Ko S. Very high gravity (VHG) ethanolic brewing and fermentation: a research update. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 38:1133–1144 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhu LJ, Ma T, Li YX, Li Q. Permeability analysis of high-adjunct-ratio spent grain layer in the high-gravity wort separation process. Process Biochem. 50:846–852 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ma T, Zhu LJ, Zheng FY, Li YX, Li Q. Evaluation of emerging factors blocking filtration of high-adjunct-ratio wort. J. Agr. Food Chem. 62:8486–8490 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Martinez MM, Rosell CM, Gomez M. Modification of wheat flour functionality and digestibility through different extrusion conditions. J. Food Eng. 143:74–79 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pandey A, Nigam P, Soccol CR, Soccol VT, Singh D, Mohan R. Advances in microbial amylases. Biotechnol. Appl. Biochem. 31:135–152 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Goyal N, Gupta JK, Soni SK. A novel raw starch digesting thermostable alpha-amylase from Bacillus sp I-3 and its use in the direct hydrolysis of raw potato starch. Enzyme Microb. Tech. 37:723–734 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim BS, Chang HN. Production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) from starch by Azotobacter chroococcum. Biotechnol. Lett. 20:109–112 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Webster R. Prediction of the lautering performance of malt. J. I. Brewing 87:52–56 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barron C, Bouchet B, Della Valle G, Gallant DJ, Planchot V. Microscopical study of the destructuring of waxy maize and smooth pea starches by shear and heat at low hydration. J. Cereal. Sci. 33:289–300 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Key Laboratory of Industrial Biotechnology, Ministry of Education, School of BiotechnologyJiangnan UniversityWuxiChina
  2. 2.Institute of Fermentation Engineering, College of Biotechnology and BioengineeringZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Novozymes (China) Investment Co. LtdBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations