Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 1719–1725 | Cite as

Evaluation of a freshness indicator for quality of fish products during storage

  • Hae-Na Chun
  • Boram Kim
  • Han-Seung Shin
Research Article


A freshness indicator consisting of a polymer matrix solution containing the pH-sensitive dye bromocresol green was investigated for monitoring visible color changes of fish spoilage volatile compounds based on the quantity of volatile amines. Mackerel fillets were inoculated with Pseudomonas fragi and stored in incubators at 5, 12, 18, and 25°C. Chromaticity values of the freshness indicator accurately tracked an increase in the trimethylamine content in the packaging headspace. Gradual color changes of the freshness indicator response correlated with the quality of fish, including growth of P. fragi and pH values during storage. Results will be useful to establish a basis for development of a freshness indicator and to determine the suitability of freshness indicator formulations for intelligent food packaging applications.


freshness indicator trimethylamine food quality polymer matrix solution 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chan ST, Yao MWY, Wong YC, Wong TW, Mok CS, Sin DWM. Evaluation of chemical indicators for monitoring freshness of food and determination of volatile amines in fish by headspace solidphase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 224: 67–74 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhao C, Pan Y, Ma L, Tang Z, Zhao G, Wang L. Assay of fish freshness using trimethylamine vapor probe based on a sensitive membrane on piezoelectric quartz crystal. Sensor. Actuator. 81: 218–222 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Heising JK, Dekker M, Bartels PV, Boekel MAJS. A nondestructive ammonium detection method as indicator for freshness for packed fish: Application on cod. J. Food Eng. 110: 254–261 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pacquit A, Frisby J, Diamond D, Lau KT, Farrell A, Quality B. Diamond D. Development of a smart packaging for the monitoring of fish spoilage. Food Chem. 102: 466–470 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Béné A, Hayman A, Reynard E, Luisier JL, Villettaz JC. A new method for the rapid determination of volatile substances: The SPME-direct method Part II. Determination of the freshness of fish. Sensor. Actuator. 72: 204–207 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Byrne L, Lau KT, Diamond D. Monitoring of headspace total volatile basic nitrogen from selected fish species using reflectance spectroscopic measurements of pH sensitive films. Analyst 127: 1338–1341 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Koseki S, Isobe S. Prediction of pathogen growth on iceberg lettuce under real temperature history during distribution from farm to table. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 104: 239–248 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Olafsdottir G, Lauzon HL, Martinsdottier E, Kristbergsson K. Influence of storage temperature on microbial spoilage characteristics of haddock fillets (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) evaluated by multivariate quality prediction. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 111: 112–125 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yam LK, Takhistov PT, Miltz J. Intelligent packaging: Concepts and applications. J. Food Sci. 70: 1–10 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Duflos G, Coin VM, Cornu M, Antinelli JF, Malle P. Determination of volatile compounds to characterize fish spoilage using headspace/mass spectrometry and solid-phase micro extraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. J. Sci. Food Agr. 86: 600–611 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barat JM, Gil L, Breijo EG, Aristoy MC, Toldra F, Manez RM, Soto J. Freshness monitoring of sea bream (Sparus aurata) with a potentiometric sensor. Food Chem. 108: 651–688 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ding T, Shim YH, Kim HN, Ha SD, Chung MS, Hwang IG, Oh DH. Development of predictive model for the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in kimbab. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 20: 471–476 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gram L, Huss HH. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 33: 121–137 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Serena TC, Michael WYY, Wong YC, Wong T, Mok CS, Della WMS. Evaluation of chemical indicators for monitoring freshness of food and determination of volatile amines in fish by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 224: 67–74 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Castro P, Padron JCP, Cansino MJC, Velazquez ES, Larriva RMD. Total volatile base nitrogen and its use to assess freshness in European sea bass stored in ice. Food Control 17: 245–248 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Özogul Y, Özyurt G, Özogul F, Kuley E, Polat A. Freshness assessment of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) by sensory, chemical and microbiological methods. Food Chem. 92: 745–751 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Al-Masri MR, Al-Bachir M. Microbial load, acidity, lipid oxidation, and volatile basic nitrogen of irradiated fish and meat-bone meals. Bioresource Technol. 98: 1163–1166 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food Science and Biotechnology and Food and Bio Safety Research CenterDongguk University-SeoulSeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations