Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 895–902

Chemical properties and in vivo gastric protective effects of bamboo salt

  • Xin Zhao
  • Jia-Le Song
  • Ok-Sang Jung
  • Yaung-Iee Lim
  • Kun-Young Park
Research Article

Abstract

Bamboo salt chemical properties and in vivo gastric protective effects were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the diameter of 9× bamboo salt was approximately 5 μm, the smallest of all samples. The Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, P, S, and K levels of bamboo salts were higher than for common salts. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed bamboo salts had a complex structure composed of NaCl, KCl, and MgCl2. Bamboo salt structure complexity increased with increased baking times. Purified, solar, and 1× bamboo salt inhibited gastric injury by 19.3%, 28.0%, and 77.8% in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, respectively. The 9× bamboo salt showed a high rate of gastric injury inhibition (98.7%). The effect of omeprazole was 99.3%. Bamboo salts reduced gastric secretion and increased gastric juice pH by increased mineral and phytochemical contents, and increased antioxidant activities. Bamboo salt can be used as a functional food to protect against gastric injury.

Keywords

bamboo salt mineral gastric injury 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Shin HY, Lee EH, Kim CY, Shin TY, Kim SD, Song YS, Lee KN, Hong SH, Kim HM. Anti-inflammatory activity of Korean folk medicine purple bamboo salt. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 25: 377–384 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shin HY, Na HJ, Moon PD, Seo SW, Shin TY, Hong SH, Lee KN. Biological activity of bamboo salt. Food Ind. Nutr. 9: 36–45 (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hu C, Zhang Y, Kitts DD. Evaluation of antioxidant and prooxidant activities of bamboo Phyllostachys nigra var. Henonis leaf extract in vitro. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48: 3170–3176 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xin Z, Kim SY, Park KY. Bamboo salt has in vitro anticancer activity in HCT-116 cells and exerts anti-metastatic effects in vivo. J. Med. Food. 16: 9–19 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim HS, Kang SY, Jung KK, Kim TG, Han HM, Rheu HM, Moon AR. Characterization and anti-gastric ulcer activity of bamboo salt. J. Food Hyg. Safety 13: 252–257 (1998)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Szabo S, Trier JS, Brown A, Schnoor J. Early vascular injury and increased vascular permeability in gastric mucosal injury caused by ethanol in the rat. Gastroenterology 88: 228–236 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Medeiros JV, Gadelha GG, Lima SJ, Garcia JA, Soares PM, Santos AA, Brito GA, Ribeiro RA, Souza MH. Role of the NO/cGMP/ KATP pathway in the protective effects of sildenafil against ethanolinduced gastric damage in rats. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 153: 721–727 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Stefánsson A, Gunnarsson I, Giroud N. New methods for the direct determination of dissolved inorganic, organic and total carbon in natural waters by reagent-free ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Anal. Chem. Acta 582: 69–74 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yoshida Y, Yoshihara K, Nagaoka N, Hanabusa M, Matsumoto T, Momoi Y. X-ray diffraction analysis of three-dimensional selfreinforcing monomer and its chemical interaction with tooth and hydroxyapatite. Dent. Mater. J. 31: 697–702 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guastaldi FP, Yoo D, Marin C, Jimbo R, Tovar N, Zanetta-Barbosa D, Coelho PG. Plasma treatment maintains surface energy of the implant surface and enhances osseointegration. Int. J. Biomater. 2013: 354125 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barnard TW, Crockett MI, Ivaldi JC, Lundberg PL, Yates DA, Levine PA, Sauer DJ. Solid-state detector for ICP-OES. Anal. Chem. 65: 1231–1239 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Morgan AB, Gilman JW. Characterization of polymer-layered silicate (clay) nanocomposites by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction: A comparative study. J. Appl. Polymer. Sci. 87: 1329–1338 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ramirez RO, Roa CC. The gastroprotective effect of tannins extracted from duhat (Syzygium cumini Skeels) bark on HCl/ethanol induced gastric mucosal injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. Clin. Hemorheol. Micro. 29: 253–261 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ensikat HJ, Barthlott W. Liquid substitution: A versatile procedure for SEM specimen preparation of biological materials without drying or coating. J. Microsc. 172: 195–203 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Weng XF. Preparation of large size sodium chloride. J. Salt Chem. Ind. 38: 18–19 (2009)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Segner WP, Schmidt CF, Boltz JK. Effect of sodium chloride and pH on the outgrowth of spores of type E Clostridium botulinum at optimal and suboptimal temperatures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 14: 49–54 (1966)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Elliott SN, Wallace JL, McKnight W, Gall DG, Hardin JA, Olson M, Buret A. Bacterial colonization and healing of gastric ulcers: The effects of epidermal growth factor. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 278: 105–112 (2000)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kazemekaite M, Leonaviciene L, Bradunaite R, Staniulyte Z, Palaima A, Razumas V. Anti-inflammatory activity of some potassium salts of N,N-disubstituted 4-aminoazobenzenesulfonic acids in rat adjuvant arthritis. Arch. Pharm. Res. 31: 736–741 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Critchlow J, Magee D, Ito S, Takeuchi K, Silen W. Requirements for restitution of the surface epithelium of frog stomach after mucosal injury. Gastroenterology 88: 237–249 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ostrowski J, Pesta J, Linnik D, Butruk E. The influence of calcium antagonists (verapamil, nifedipine, and MgCl2) on rat gastric damage induced by ethanol in vivo and in vitro. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 44: 273–281 (1993)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith SM, Grisham MB, Manci EA, Granger DN, Kvietys PR. Gastric mucosal injury in the rat. Role of iron and xanthine oxidase. Gastroenterology 92: 950–956 (1987)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhao X, Jung OS, Park KY. Alkaline and antioxidant effects of bamboo salt. J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 41: 1301–1304 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yalcin S, Mutlu IH. Structural characterization of some table salt samples by XRD, ICP, FTIR and XRF techniques. Acta Physica. Polonica. A 121: 50–52 (2012)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ha JK, Park KY. Comparison of mineral contents and external structure of various salts. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 27: 413–418 (1998)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ghosal S, Shbeeb A, Hemminger JC. Surface segregation of bromine in bromide doped NaCl: Implications for the seasonal variations in Arctic ozone. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27: 1879–1882 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry, Estimating the Maximum Safe Starting Dose in Initial Clinical Trials for Therapeutics in Adult Healthy Volunteers. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, USA (2005)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kim HY, Lee ES, Jeong JY, Choi JH, Choi YS, Han DJ, Lee MA, Kim SY, Kim CJ. Effect of bamboo salt on the physicochemical properties of meat emulsion systems. Meat Sci. 86: 960–965 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shin HY, Na HJ, Moon PD, Shin TK, Shin TY, Kim SH, Hong SH, Kim HM. Inhibition of mast cell-dependent immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions by purple bamboo salt. J. Ethnopharmacol. 91: 153–157 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ligumsky M, Sestieri M, Okon E, Ginsburg I. Antioxidants inhibit ethanol-induced gastric injury in the rat: Role of manganese, glycine, and carotene. Scand. J. Gastroentero. 30: 854–860 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhao X, Ju JH, Kim HM, Park KY. Antimutagenic activity and in vitro anticancer effects of bamboo salt on HepG2 human hepatoma cells. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 32: 9–20 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nassini R, Andrè E, Gazzieri D, De Siena G, Zanasi A, Geppetti P, Materazzi S. A bicarbonate-alkaline mineral water protects from ethanol-induced hemorrhagic gastric lesions in mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 33: 1319–1323 (2010)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhao X, Deng X, Park KY, Qiu L, Pang L. Purple bamboo salt has anticancer activity in TCA8113 cells in vitro and preventive effects on buccal mucosa cancer in mice in vivo. Exp. Ther. Med. 5: 549–554 (2013)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zhao X, Song JL, Kil JH, Park KY. Bamboo salt attenuates CCl4- induced hepatic damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. Nutr. Res. Pract. 7: 273–280 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Vaananen PM, Meddings JB, Wallace JL. Role of oxygen-derived free radicals in indomethacin-induced gastric injury. Am. J. Physiol. Gastro. L. 261: 470–475 (1991)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Zhao
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jia-Le Song
    • 1
  • Ok-Sang Jung
    • 2
  • Yaung-Iee Lim
    • 4
  • Kun-Young Park
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Science and NutritionPusan National UniversityBusanKorea
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryPusan National UniversityBusanKorea
  3. 3.Department of Biological and Chemical EngineeringChongqing University of EducationChongqingChina
  4. 4.Department of Food and NutritionSungshin Women’s UniversitySeoulKorea

Personalised recommendations