Food Science and Biotechnology

, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 1501–1508 | Cite as

Hypocholesterimic effects of cold and hot extracted virgin coconut oil (VCO) in comparison to commercial coconut oil: Evidence from a male wistar albino rat model

  • Yashi SrivastavaEmail author
  • Anil Dutt Semwal
  • M. S. L. Swamy
Research Article


The hypolipidemic effect of cold extracted virgin coconut oil (CEVCO) and hot extracted virgin coconut oil (HEVCO) compared to commercially available coconut oil (CCO) was studied using male wistar rats. Groups were designated as control, hypercholesterimic control (HC Control), HC+10% (CEVCO), HC+15% (CEVCO), HC+10% (HEVCO), HC+15% (HEVCO) and HC+15% (CCO). Control rats were fed a basal diet while other groups were initially fed a hypercholesterimic diet (2% cholesterol and 0.25% bile salts) for 15 days, then fed with CEVCO or HEVCO (both at 10% and 15% levels), and commercial coconut oil (15%) for 30 days. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by approximately 25 and 40%, respectively, in the blood plasma, while HDL cholesterol increased significantly (p<0.05) by approximately 21% in HEVCO fed rats. Tissue cholesterol and triacylycerol (TAG) levels in both liver and heart tissues decreased significantly (p<0.05) in CEVCO and HEVCO fed animals, compared with CCO fed rats.


virgin coconut oil low density lipoprotein (LDL) high density lipoprotein (HDL) total cholesterol (TC) triacylycerol (TAG) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Keys A. Seven Countries a Multivariate Analysis of Death and CHD, Havard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA. pp. 55–60 (1980)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Oluba OM, Eidangbe GO, Godwin CO, Blessing OI. Palm and Egusi melon oils lower serum and liver lipid profile and improve antioxidant activity in rats fed a high fat diet. Int. J. Med. Sci. 3: 47–51 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Erdincler DS, Seven A, Inci F, Beger T, Candan G. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in experimental animals: Effects of aging and hypercholesterolemic diet. Clin. Chim. Acta 265: 77–84 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Warnholtz A, Hanke M, Mathias O, Maria W, Thomas M. Antioxidants and endothelial dysfunction in hyperlipidemia. Curr. Hypert. Rep. 3: 53–60 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Villarino BJ, Dy LM, Lizada CC. Descriptive sensory evaluation of virgin coconut oil and refined bleached and deodorized coconut oil. LWT-Food Sci. Tech. 40: 193–199 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Songkro S, Sirikatitham A, Sungkarak S, Buaking K, Wungsintaweekul J, Maneenuan D, Oungbho K. Characterization of aromatherapy massage oils prepared from virgin coconut oil and some essential oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 87: 93–107 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Seneviratne KN, Dissanayake MS. Variation of phenollic content in coconut oil extracted by two conventional methods. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 43: 597–602 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. Virgin coconut oil supplemented diet increases the antioxidant status in rats. Food Chem. 99: 260–266 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Anitha N, Lokesh BR. Lipase modified blended oils are more efficient in reducing cholesterol in rats compared to the blended oils. Nutr. Res. 27: 580–586 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sabir SM, Hayat IH, Gardezi SDA. Estimation of sterols in edible fats and oils. Pak. J. Nutri. 2: 178–181 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM. Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Meth. Enzym. 299: 152–178 (1999)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Umbare RP, Mate GS, Jawalkar DV, Patil SM, Dongare SS. Quality evaluation of Phyllanthus amarus (Schumach) leaves extract for its hypolipidemic activity. Biol. Med. 1: 28–33 (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Balogun EA, Adebayo JO. Effect of ethanolic extract of Daniella Oliveri leaves on some cardiovascular indices in rats. Pharma. Mag. 3: 16–20 (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Girotti AW, Thomas LP. Damage effects of oxygen radicals on resealed erythrocyte ghosts. J. Bio. Chem. 259: 1744–1732 (1984)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bradbury JM. Rapid biochemical tests for characterization of the Mycoplasmatales. J. Clin. Micro. 5: 531–534 (1977)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Onyeneke EC, Adebisi KE, Eriyamremu GE, Ojeaburu SI, Asagba SO, Oluba OM. Effect of lipid-based diet on some lipidmetabolizing enzymes. J. Med. Sci. 7: 1283–1289 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Oluba OM, Adeyemi O, Ojieh GC, Adebisi KE, Isiosio IO, Aboluwoye CO. Effect of dietary cholesterol on some serum enzymes. J. Med. Sci. 8: 390–394 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro IDL oxidation. Clin. Biochem. 37: 830–835 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marina AM, Cheman YB, Nazimah SAH, Amin I. Antioxidant capacity and phenollic acids of virgin coconut oil. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutri. 60: 114–123 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Seneviratne KNCD, Hapuarachch I, Sagarika E. Comparison of the phenolic-dependent antioxidant properties of coconut oil extracted under cold and hot conditions. Food Chem. 114: 1444–1449 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ostlund RE. Phytosterols in human nutrition. Ann. Rev. Nutri. 22: 533–549 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Howell WH, Namara DJ, Tosca MA, Smith BT, Gaines JA. Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary fat and cholesterol meta analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutri. 65: 1747–1764 (1997)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Covas MI, Fito M, Lamuels R, Sebastia N, Dela TBC, Marrugat RM. Virgin olive oil phenolic compounds: binding to human low density lipoproteins (LDL) and effect on LDL oxidation. Int. J. Clin. Pharma. Res. 341: 49–54 (2000)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hostmark AT, Spydevold O, Eilertsen E. Plasma lipid concentration and liver output of lipoproteins in rats fed coconut fat or sunflower oil. Artery 7: 367–383 (1980)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ghosh DK, Ghosh A, Manojkumar C, Samsudeen K. A simpler approach to understand coronary heart disease, fat facts and its correlation with consumption of coconut oil. Ind. Coco. J. 10: 5–19 (2009)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abudu N, Miller JJ, Levinson SS. Vitamins in human arteriosclerosis with emphasis on vitamin C and vitamin E. Clin. Chemi. Acta 339: 11–25 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Muntean A, Zing JM, Azzi A. Anti-artherosclerotic effects of vitamin E myth or reality. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 8: 59–76 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Manorama R, Rukmini C. Nutritional evaluation of crude palm oil in rats. Am. J. Clin. Nutri. 53: 1031S–1033S (1991)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yashi Srivastava
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anil Dutt Semwal
    • 1
  • M. S. L. Swamy
    • 2
  1. 1.Cereals and Pulses Technology DivisionDefence Food Research LaboratoryMysoreIndia
  2. 2.Defence Food Research LaboratoryMysoreIndia

Personalised recommendations