Clinical Rheumatology

, Volume 38, Issue 11, pp 3289–3295 | Cite as

Cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Turkish version of the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation

  • Zeynep Hazar KanikEmail author
  • Omer Osman Pala
  • Gul Oznur Karabicak
  • Seyit Citaker
Original Article



The Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE) is a joint-specific, self-administered outcome measure used to determine the level of pain and disability in patients with various elbow pathologies. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the PREE into Turkish (PREE-T) and to test its reliability and validity.


Fifty-nine patients with elbow disorders were included in the present study. The original version of the PREE was translated and culturally adapted into Turkish by following standard procedure. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach’s alpha, respectively. Construct validity of PREE-T was determined with Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires by using Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. Floor and ceiling effects were also analyzed.


A high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha of 0.959) and an excellent test-retest reliability (the intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.970) indicated that the PREE-T was reliable. Neither floor nor ceiling effects were observed in sub-parameters (0–1.7%) and the total score (0%) of PREE-T. Correlation coefficients between the PREE-T total score and DASH disability/symptom and work sub-parameters were 0.636 and 0.461, respectively. PREE-T pain and function sub-parameters correlated with related sub-parameters of the SF-36 bodily pain (r = − 0.721) and physical functioning (r = − 0.263).


The Turkish version of the PREE is a valid and reliable outcome measure for assessing patients with elbow disorders. It is recommended to be used in research and clinical settings.

Key Points

The Turkish version of the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation was successfully translated into Turkish and validated in a population with various elbow pathologies according to established guidelines

The Turkish version of the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation has high internal consistency and test-retest values

The Turkish version of the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation is valid and reliable


Elbow Outcome measure Reliability Validity 


Compliance with ethical standards



Human and animal rights statement

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

10067_2019_4665_MOESM1_ESM.docx (18 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 17 kb)


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Copyright information

© International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zeynep Hazar Kanik
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Omer Osman Pala
    • 3
  • Gul Oznur Karabicak
    • 4
  • Seyit Citaker
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health SciencesGazi UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of NeurobiologyHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health SciencesSivas Cumhuriyet UniversitySivasTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health SciencesAdnan Menderes UniversityAydinTurkey
  5. 5.Department of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health SciencesGazi UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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