Corneal vortex keratopathy in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (c-SLE)
To describe the prevalence and risk factors associated with corneal vortex keratopathy in a childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (c-SLE) cohort.
Material and methods
Consecutive outpatients with c-SLE were evaluated by a pediatric ophthalmologist and pediatric rheumatologist in an outpatient clinic setting in an urban Children’s Hospital. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and disease characteristics were documented for each patient. Cumulative drug dosage, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology damage index (SLICC/ACR-DI) scores were calculated.
A total of 76 c-SLE patients (61 (80.26%) females; mean age = 17.9 (SD ± 3.07)) were included. Ophthalmologic abnormalities were observed in 36 (47.36%) patients of which 16 (21.10%) had corneal vortex keratopathy (p = 0.03). c-SLE patients with corneal vortex keratopathy were all female. We did not observe any additional clinical, laboratory, or treatment feature associated with corneal vortex keratopathy.
We observed a high prevalence of corneal vortex keratopathy in female c-SLE. We hypothesize that this finding may be an initial, dose-related toxicity due to antimalarial use. Follow-up studies are necessary to determine if these changes are an early predictor of retinal toxicity due to antimalarial in c-SLE.
• Corneal vortex keratopathy was frequently observed in female patients with c-SLE on a chloroquine medication.
• Corneal vortex keratopathy may be an early marker of chloroquine retinopathy.
KeywordsCorneal vortex keratopathy Ocular findings Systemic lupus erythematosus
Simone Appenzeller received grants from Fundação Apoio a Pesquisa Estado São Paulo-Brasil (Conselho Nacional Pesquisa Desenvolvimento-Brasil CNPq 304255/2015-7 and 473328/2013-5 and 401477/2016-9), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) Finance Code 001).
Compliance with ethical standards
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