Gout and chronic pain in older adults: a Medicare claims study
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• Gout was associated with twofold higher risk of incident (or new) diagnosis of chronic pain.
• Gout treatments were associated with a lower chronic pain risk.
• Increased risk of chronic pain with gout was similar across age, race, and sex.
• Studies should examine if optimal gout control with treat-to-target approach can reduce the risk of chronic pain in people with gout.
KeywordsChronic pain Elderly Gout Older adults Risk
International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, common modification
xanthine oxido-reductase system
coronary artery disease
- ACE inhibitor
angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor
Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
We thank Dr. Jeffrey Curtis of the UAB Division of Rheumatology, who permitted us to re-use the 5% Medicare data.
The funding body did not play any role in design, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
JAS designed the study, developed the study protocol, reviewed the analyses, and wrote the first draft of the paper. DC performed the data abstraction and data analyses. All authors revised the manuscript, read, and approved the final manuscript.
This material is the result of work supported by research funds from the Division of Rheumatology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the resources and use of facilities at the Birmingham VA Medical Center, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
JAS has received consultant fees from Crealta/Horizon, Fidia, UBM LLC, Medscape, WebMD, the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology. JAS owns stock options in Amarin pharmaceuticals and Viking therapeutics. JAS is a member of the executive of OMERACT, an organization that develops outcome measures in rheumatology and receives arms-length funding from 36 companies. JAS is a member of the Veterans Affairs Rheumatology Field Advisory Committee. JAS is the editor and the Director of the UAB Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group Satellite Center on Network Meta-analysis. JAS previously served as a member of the following committees: member, the American College of Rheumatology’s (ACR) Annual Meeting Planning Committee (AMPC) and Quality of Care Committees, the Chair of the ACR Meet-the-Professor, Workshop and Study Group Subcommittee, and the co-Chair of the ACR Criteria and Response Criteria subcommittee. DC has no conflicts to declare. There are no non-financial competing interests for any of the authors.
Ethics/IRB approval and consent to participate
The University of Alabama at Birmingham’s Institutional Review Board approved this study and all investigations were conducted in conformity with ethical principles of research. The IRB waived the need for informed consent for this study.
Consent to publish
No individual person’s data were presented in any form in this study and therefore no consent to publish is required.
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