Gender differences in patients with fibromyalgia: a gait analysis
This study analysed the spatio-temporal parameters, asymmetry, variability and bilateral coordination of gait in women and men with fibromyalgia and healthy subjects walking at their usual velocity and at a faster walking velocity. Fifty-five women and 12 men with fibromyalgia were analysed. A healthy group of 44 women and 17 men was analysed as the control group. A GAITRite system was used to obtain the spatio-temporal gait parameters for the participants when walking at their usual velocity and at a faster velocity. Coefficients of variation, bilateral coordination and gait asymmetry indexes were calculated. All groups exhibited a significant increase (p < 0.001) in spatio-temporal parameters when walking fast. The fibromyalgia groups showed increased bilateral coordination, asymmetry and variability of stance phase when walking fast. The fibromyalgia women showed significant spatio-temporal, variability and bilateral coordination of gait differences compared with the healthy women. The fibromyalgia men reported significant differences in velocity, cadence, stride length, swing time variability and stance gait asymmetry indices compared with the healthy men. No significant differences were observed between the men and women in the fibromyalgia groups. The findings of the present study did not support gender-specific differences in walking variables and indices in FM patients. The differences found between both genders of FM patients and healthy subjects in walking indices at fast velocities could be a useful tool for diagnoses and evaluation of male and female patients with FM during short-term fast walking tests.
KeywordsAsymmetry Bilateral coordination Fibromyalgia Gait Sex characteristics Variability
The work of Orantes-González, E was supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports of Spain (ref. FPU13/00162, EST15/00019).
The research programme of the Faculty of Education, Economy & Technology of Ceuta, to support the editing of the manuscript was acknowledged.
Compliance with ethical standards
- 1.Wolfe F (1990) Diagnosis of fibromyalgia: the new criteria. J Musculoskel Med 7:53–69Google Scholar
- 2.Smith H, Harris R, Clauw D (2011) Fibromyalgia: an afferent processing disorder leading to a complex pain generalized syndrome. Pain Physician 14:E217–E245Google Scholar
- 4.Mas A, Carmona L, Valverde M, Ribas B (2008) Prevalence and impact of fibromyalgia on function and quality of life in individuals from the general population: results from a nationwide study in Spain. Clin Exp Rheumatol 26:519–526Google Scholar
- 5.Lawrence RC, Felson DT, Helmick CG, Arnold LM, Choi H, Deyo RA, Gabriel S, Hirsch R, Hochberg MC, Hunder GG, Jordan JM, Katz JN, Kremers HM, Wolfe F, National Arthritis Data Workgroup (2008) Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States: part II. Arthritis Rheumatol 58:26–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Wolfe F, Ross K, Anderson J, Russell I (1995) Aspects of fibromyalgia in the general population: sex, pain threshold, and fibromyalgia symptoms. J Rheumatol 22:151–156Google Scholar
- 7.Yunus M, Celiker R, Aldag J (2004) Fibromyalgia in men: comparison of psychological features with women. J Rheumatol 31:2464–2467Google Scholar
- 9.Yunus M, Inanici F, Aldag J, RF M (2000) Fibromyalgia in men: comparison of clinical features with women. J Rheumatol 27:489–490Google Scholar
- 15.Segura-Jiménez V, Estévez-López F, Soriano-Maldonado A, Álvarez-Gallardo IC, Delgado-Fernández M, Ruiz JR, Aparicio VA (2016) Gender differences in symptoms, health-related quality of life, sleep quality, mental health, cognitive performance, pain-cognition, and positive health in Spanish fibromyalgia individuals: the Al-Ándalus project. Pain Res Manag 2016:1–14. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5135176 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Auvinet B, Chaleil D, Cabane J, Dumolard A, Hatron P, Juvin R, Lanteri-Minet M, Mainguy Y, Negre-Pages L, Pillard F, Riviere D, Maugars YM (2011) The interest of gait markers in the identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 12:258. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-12-258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 36.Goldenberg D, Mossey C, Schmid C (1995) A model to assess severity and impact of fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 22:2313–2318Google Scholar
- 37.Prados G, Miró E, Pilar-Martínez M et al (2013) Fibromyalgia: gender differences and sleep-disordered breathing. Clin Exp Rheumatol 6:S102–SS10Google Scholar