Birmingham vasculitis activity and chest manifestation at diagnosis can predict hospitalised infection in ANCA-associated vasculitis
- 167 Downloads
We investigated the development rate and time, risk factors, predictors, and aetiologies of hospitalised infection in Korean patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 154 patients with AAV. Hospitalised infection was considered only when patients were admitted for serious infection related to AAV or AAV treatment. The gap-time was defined as the period from diagnosis to the first hospitalised infection or to the last visit for uninfected patients. We calculated Birmingham vasculitis activity score (BVAS) or BVAS for granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) and five factor score (FFS (2009)) and reviewed medications administered. We set the optimal cut-offs of BVAS and that of FFS (2009) at diagnosis at 20.5 and 1.5. Forty-four patients (28.6%) were admitted for serious infection. One-, 5- and 10-year hospitalised infection free survival rates were 85.1, 77.9 and 72.7%, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis of significant variables in comparison analysis, only chest manifestation at diagnosis (OR 2.692) was remarkably associated with hospitalised infection. In multivariable Cox hazard model analysis of significant variables in Kaplan-Meier analysis, BVAS at diagnosis ≥ 20.5 (HR 2.375) and chest manifestation at diagnosis (HR 2.422) were independent predictors of hospitalised infection during the gap-time. Bacterial pneumonia was the most common infectious aetiology (N = 29), followed by fungal infection including aspergillosis (N = 6). BVAS and chest manifestation at diagnosis can predict hospitalised infection during the gap-time.
KeywordsAetiology ANCA-associated vasculitis Hospitalised infection Predictors Risk factors
This study was supported by a grant from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute, funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea (HI14C1324), and Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2017R1D1A1B03029050).
Compliance with ethical standards
This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Severance Hospital (4-2017-0673).
- 1.Jennette JC, Falk RJ, Bacon PA, Basu N, Cid MC, Ferrario F, Flores-Suarez LF, Gross WL, Guillevin L, Hagen EC, Hoffman GS, Jayne DR, Kallenberg CGM, Lamprecht P, Langford CA, Luqmani RA, Mahr AD, Matteson EL, Merkel PA, Ozen S, Pusey CD, Rasmussen N, Rees AJ, Scott DGI, Specks U, Stone JH, Takahashi K, Watts RA (2013) 2012 revised International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference Nomenclature of Vasculitides. Arthritis Rheum 65(1):1–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 2.Watts R, Lane S, Hanslik T, Hauser T, Hellmich B, Koldingsnes W, Mahr A, Segelmark M, Cohen-Tervaert JW, Scott D (2007) Development and validation of a consensus methodology for the classification of the ANCA-associated vasculitides and polyarteritis nodosa for epidemiological studies. Ann Rheum Dis 66(2):222–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 4.Masi AT, Hunder GG, Lie JT, Michel BA, Bloch DA, Arend WP, Calabrese LH, Edworthy SM, Fauci AS, Leavitt RY (1990) The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Churg-Strauss syndrome (allergic granulomatosis and angiitis). Arthritis Rheum 33(8):1094–1100CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 5.Cartin-Ceba R, Golbin JM, Keogh KA, Peikert T, Sánchez-Menéndez M, Ytterberg SR, Fervenza FC, Specks U (2012) Rituximab for remission induction and maintenance in refractory granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s): ten-year experience at a single center. Arthritis Rheum 64(11):3770–3778CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 14.Chen YX, Yu HJ, Zhang W, Ren H, Chen XN, Shen PY, Xu YW, Li X, Pan XX, Ni LY, Wang WM, Chen N (2008) Analyzing fatal cases of Chinese patients with primary antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated renal vasculitis: a 10-year retrospective study. Kidney Blood Press Res 31(5):343–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Mukhtyar C, Lee R, Brown D, Carruthers D, Dasgupta B, Dubey S, Flossmann O, Hall C, Hollywood J, Jayne D, Jones R, Lanyon P, Muir A, Scott D, Young L, Luqmani RA (2009) Modification and validation of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (version 3). Ann Rheum Dis 68(12):1827–1832CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Stone JH, Hoffman GS, Merkel PA, Min YI, Uhlfelder ML, Hellmann DB, Specks U, Allen NB, Davis JC, Spiera RF, Calabrese LH, Wigley FM, Maiden N, Valente RM, Niles JL, Fye KH, McCune JW, St.Clair EW, Luqmani RA, for the International Network for the Study of the Systemic Vasculitides (INSSYS) (2001) A disease-specific activity index for Wegener’s granulomatosis: modification of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score. International Network for the Study of the Systemic Vasculitides (INSSYS). Arthritis Rheum 44(4):912–920CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Guillevin L, Pagnoux C, Seror R, Mahr A, Mouthon L, Le Toumelin P, French Vasculitis Study Group (FVSG) (2011) The five-factor score revisited: assessment of prognoses of systemic necrotizing vasculitides based on the French Vasculitis Study Group (FVSG) cohort. Medicine (Baltimore) 90(1):19–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 20.Mukhtyar C, Hellmich B, Jayne D, Flossmann O, Luqmani R (2006) Remission in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated systemic vasculitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 24(6 Suppl 43):S-93–S-98Google Scholar
- 22.de Groot K, Harper L, Jayne DR, Flores Suarez LF, Gregorini G, Gross WL, Luqmani R, Pusey CD, Rasmussen N, Sinico RA, Tesar V, Vanhille P, Westman K, Savage CO, EUVAS (European Vasculitis Study Group) (2009) Pulse versus daily oral cyclophosphamide for induction of remission in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 150(10):670–680CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Stone JH, Merkel PA, Spiera R, Seo P, Langford CA, Hoffman GS, Kallenberg CG, St Clair EW, Turkiewicz A, Tchao NK, Webber L, Ding L, Sejismundo LP, Mieras K, Weitzenkamp D, Ikle D, Seyfert-Margolis V, Mueller M, Brunetta P, Allen NB, Fervenza FC, Geetha D, Keogh KA, Kissin EY, Monach PA, Peikert T, Stegeman C, Ytterberg SR, Specks U, RAVE-ITN Research Group (2010) Rituximab versus cyclophosphamide for ANCA-associated vasculitis. N Engl J Med 363(3):221–232CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 24.Jones RB, Tervaert JW, Hauser T, Luqmani R, Morgan MD, Peh CA, Savage CO, Segelmark M, Tesar V, van Paassen P, Walsh D, Walsh M, Westman K, Jayne DR, European Vasculitis Study Group (2010) Rituximab versus cyclophosphamide in ANCA-associated renal vasculitis. N Engl J Med 363(3):211–220CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar